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Muculoskeletal

med surg

QuestionAnswer
Sway back Lordosis
Lateral curvature of the spine Scoliosis
Humpback Kyphosis
used by physical therapist to measure true angles of ROM Goniometer
Inflammation of the joints Arthritis
S/S of Arthritis pain, edema & stiffness of the joints especially upon waking
joints commonly affect by arthritis lumbar vertebrae, hips, knees & fingers
RA Rheumatoid Arthritis
RA is considered autoinmmune & genetic
the most serious form of arthritis & can cause contractures RA
contractures flexion & fixation of the joints
S/S of RA pain,edema,warmth stiffness of the joints especially upon waking
RA is systemic so it can spread to all of the joints
RA can cause enlargement of the joints called Rheumatoid Nodules
TX of RA ROM,rest,NSAIDS & immunosupressants
OA Osteoarthritis
most common arthritis & can accompany aging OA
OA commonly affects Fingers,neck lower back knees & hips
other causes of OA chronic irritation, injury heredity & obesity
primary symptom of OA Pain & stiffness of the joint
DJD Degenerative Joint Disease
OA can cause DJD causing irregular bone deposits called Spurs
there is no cure for OA but TX include ROM, rest, heat therapy vit-D,C,E beta carotene NSAIDS & SAIDS SX: total hip replacement total knee replacement
Gout is a form of arthritis that usually affects the great toes it is caused by hyperuricemia causing deposits of uric acid crystals in the kindeys & joints
blood condition of excessive uric acid Hyperuricemia
usually sudden and affects men over the age of 40 Gout
complications of gout joint deformities & kidney damage
Tx for gout refrain from consuming organ meat, anchovies,sardines & beer, antigout meds
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of the median nerve in the wrist CTS
more common in women and usually strikes around 35-40 CTS
S/S of CTS numbness & tingling in the hand progressing to pain that radiates up the arm to the shoulder especially at night
Repetitive strain injury CTS
wrist is kept in a flexed position for an extended period to perform repetitive task Cause of CTS
DX test for CTS HX of repetitive movements electromyography (EMG)
TX for CTS proper wrist alignment, avoidance of repetitive movements braces & splints NSAIDS and surgery
HID Herniated intervertebral Disk AKA slipped or ruptured disk
occurs more frequently in the lower lumbar region many times cause by poor body mechanics HID
Primary complication of HID pressure exerted on the spinal cord & or spinal nerve causing weakness,tingling & numbness with extreme pain
common spinal nerve affected by HID Sciatic nerve causing sciatica
irritation of the sciatic nerve Sciatica
TX for HID bed rest firm mattress,muscle relaxants, narcotic analgesics,heat application traction(TRX),TENS & Sx->diskectomy & vertebral fusion
Degeneration deterioration
MD muscular Dystrophy
hereditary disease of which there are several forms causing muscle degeneration in which the individual is totally disabled MD
most common & serious form of MD Duchenne
MD leads to death by means of heart & respiratory failure
DX for MD EMG & muscle biopsy
TX for MD PT & OT orthopedic assistive devices
inflammation of the bone & bone marrow osteomyelitis
common causes of osteomyelitis staphylococcus aureus
S/S of osteomyelitis pain, chills, pyrexia leukocytosis
Pyrexia fever
leukocytosis elevated WBC
common complication of an open fx is osteomyelitis
necorsis death
bone necrosis sequestrum
complication of osteomyelitis sequestrum
disease that affects infants & young children Rickets
deficiency of CA & vit-D Rickets
bones of a child with rickets are soft & tend to bend easily causing deformities such as bowed legs & knocked knees
the child's legs are flaccid with rickets bc muscles need CA for proper muscle contractions
teething may be delayed & there is a characteristic of pot belly Rickets
rickets is associated with malabsorption syndrome
inability to absorb fat soluble Vit- A,E,D & K Malabsorption Syndrome
Most common prohylaxis & TX for rickets sunlight 10min/day recommended daily dose of CA & vit-D
softening & decalcifification of the bones in adults osetomalacia
disease that affects these bones the most vertebral column, pelvis & legs osteomalacia
bones tend to bend deform & Fx easily osteomalacia
a lateral curvature of the spine scoliosis
the only way to dx osteoporosis dual energy X-ray absorptiometery (DEXA) scan
needles test that looks for response to sensation electromyography EMG
a deficiency in activated vit-D (calcitrol) which promotes calcium absorption from the GI tract osteomalacia
one side of the bone is broken & other side is bent Greenstick Fx
Chronic disorder that can result in enlarged & misshapen bones excessive breakdown & formation of bone followed by disorganized bone remodeling Paget's Disease
distinctive sign of lupus: facial rash that resembles the wings of a butterfly unfolding across both cheeks - covers the cheeks & bridge of the nose Butterfly rash
Systemic lupus erthematosus SLE
autoimmune & gentic RA
most serious form of arthritis & can cause contratures RA
open FX compound fx
bone protrudes through the skin compound Fx
twist around the shaft of the bone Spiral Fx
below the knee amputation BKA
observe bleeding, VS, dressing, Elevate extremity,don't bend the knee may elevate FOB, control pain, lie Pt in prone position, light weight cast&stump shaping dressing change, washing stump post op care for amputees
Hip can easily pop out of socket becoming dislocate ,nurse must be compentent when caring for pt with THA, pt must use raised toilet seat, don't turn toes inward will cause hip to internally rotate,No crossing legs,dont bend at the waist, keep legs apduct post-op precautions for THA
Tx for clubfoot cast or splints are put on during the neonatal period
TX for arthritis : injection of gold salts also called aurotherapy chrysotherapy
a test using X-rays to obtain a series of pictures of a joint after a contrast material (such as a dye, water, air, or a combination of these) has been injected into the joint Arhrogram
a surgical operation to remove the back of one or more vertebrae, usually to give access to the spinal cord or to relieve pressure on nerves. laminectomy
what type of surgery would be used to remove bone spurs lamimectomy
a way to detect irritated nerves. It is performed by lightly tapping (percussing) over the nerve to elicit a sensation of tingling or "pins and needles" in the distribution of the nerve. Tinel's Sign
show conditions affecting the spinal cord and nerves within the spinal canal. myleogram
a system of splints, ropes, slings, pulleys, and weights for suspending the lower extremities of the body, used as an aid to realignment and healing from fractures or from surgical intervention. balance suspension traction
What actually happens in the body with RA something triggers the immune system to attack the joints & somtime other organs.
autoimmune disease,inflammation can affect many different body systems including joints,skin ,kidneys, blood cells, brain,heart & lungs SLE
S/S of SLE fatigue, fever,joint pain, stiffness, swelling, butterfly rash, skin lesions that worsen with the sun,raynauds in time of stress,SOB,chest pain, dry eyes, celphagia , confusion & memory loss
SLE is idopathic
complications of SLE serious kidey damage,infection ,bone tissue death, cancer
kidney failure is one of the leading causes of death among ppl with SLE
Dx SLE low RBC & WBC, increased SED rate, Antinuclear anitbody (ANA) test, organ function test & CXR
Created by: carolyne33