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68C Exam 6

Digestive, Nasogastric, Nutrition,

Assimilation changing absorbed substances (nutrients) into chemically different forms for use by the cells.
Absorption the movement of nutrients, i.e. molecules of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol go from inside the intestines into the circulating fluids of the body.
Bolus a mass of food and saliva that is ready to be swallowed.
Chemical digestion the process of breaking food into simpler chemicals (Example- saliva begins to break the starch down into disaccharides). It breaks down large non-absorbable food molecules into smaller, absorbable molecules.
Chyme a semisolid mixture of food and gastric juice.
Digestion the process of altering the chemical and physical composition of food so it can be absorbed and used by the body cells.
Defecation the elimination of indigestible substances from the colon i.e. bowel movement.
Ingestion the taking in of food into the mouth.
Mechanical digestion the process of breaking food down into smaller pieces and mixes them with digestive juices without altering the chemical composition, moves them along the alimentary canal and eliminates the digestive wastes from the body (i.e. mastication-chewing)
Peristalsis rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the walls of the alimentary canal.
Colostomy surgical creation of an artificial opening on the abdominal wall by cutting the colon and bringing it out through a stoma on the abdominal surface.
Constipation decreased passage of bowel movement or hard dry feces
Diarrhea frequent loose stools
Defecation elimination of bowel wastes
Enema instillation of solution into the rectum and sigmoid colon.
Feces stool; waste products eliminated through the colon
Flatulence gas.
Hemorrhoids enlarged vein inside or outside of the rectum
Ileostomy opening surgically created at the point of ileum to divert intestinal contents after lower portions of the bowel are surgically removed.
Impaction presence of fecal mass too large or hard to pass voluntarily.
Ostomy surgical creation of an artificial opening (colostomy, ileostomy, tracheostomy)
Stoma a mouth-like opening
Glandular Cell that secretes mucus Mucous Cell
A rinf of muscle located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach that ptevents food from re-entering the esophagus when the stomach contracts; gastroesophageal sphincter Cardiac Sphincter
Portion of the small intestine located between the duodenum and the ileum Jejunum
Fuid Secretion of the mucous cells Mucus
The Pharyngeal Tonsils located in the nasopharynx Adenoids
An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch Amylase
A portion of the pharynx associated with the nasal cavity Nasopharynx
Teeth that are shed and replaced by permanent teeth; primary teeth Deciduous Teeth
Decalcification and decay of teeth Dental Caries
Cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydochloric acid and intinsic factor Parietal Cell
Large, fixed phagocyte in the liver that removes bacterial cells from the blood Kupffer Cell
Large Salivary glands located on the sides of the face just in fron and below the ears Parotid Glands
Inactive form of pepsin Pepsinogen
Space within a tubular structure such as a blood vessel or intestine Lumen
An enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of polypeptides Peptidase
Breaking up of fat globiles into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts Emulsification
Semifluid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach to the small intestine Chyme
Hard Covering on the exposed surface of a tooth Enamel
Fluid Secreted by the Liver and stored in the gallbladder Bile
A ring of muscle located between the stomach and the duodenum; controls food entry into the duodenum Pyloric Sphincter Nuscle
Tubular Gland located at the base of a villus within the intestinal wall Intestinal Gland
The terminal end of the digestive tube between the sigmoid colon and the anus Rectum
The most Distal two or three inches of the large intestine that open to the outside as the anus Anal Canal
Tube that transports bile from the cystic duct to the duodenum Common Bile Duct
Organs that supplement the functions of the other organs; accessory organs of the digestive and reproductive systems Accesory Organs
Protein-splitting enzyme secreted by the gastric glands of the stomach Pepsin
Portion of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum Ileum
One of the front teeth that is adapted for cutting food Incisor
A substance produced by the gastric glands that promotes absorption of vitamin B12 Intrinsic Factor
Enzymw thay catalyzes breakdown of lactose into gluclose and galactose Lactase
Pertaining to the Liver Hepatic
An enzyme that catalyzes conversion of maltose into gluclose Maltase
Portion of the digestive tube between the mouth and the esophahus Pharynx
Secretion of the Gastric Glands within the stomach Gastric Juice
A large, dark red organ in the upper part of the abdomen onthe right side that detoxifies blood, stores glycogen and fat-soluble vitamins, and synthesizes proteins Liver
A gland, associated with the mouth, that secretes saliva Salivary Gland
Serous membrane composing the outer layer in the walls of the organs of digestion Serosa
A disaccharide composed of two gluclose molecules Maltose
Thick folds in the inner wall of the stomach that disappear when the stomach is distended Rugae
A canine tooth Cuspid
Cell of gastric gland that secretes various digestive enzymes, including pepsinogen Chief Cell
The lower portion of the pharynx near the opening to the larynx Laryngopharynx
A fold of peritoneal membrane that attached an abdominal organ to the abdominal wall Mesentary
The membrane that lines tubes and body cavities that open to the outside of the body; mucous membrane Mucosa
Material expelled frpm the digestive tract during defecation Feces
Pertaining to the Pancreas Pancreatic
A rear tooth with a flattened surface adapted for grinding food Molar
Part of the digestive tract extending from the stomach to the cecum; consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum Small Intestine
Beneath the tongue Sublingual
Tubular Portion of the digestive tract that leads from the pharynx to the stomach Esophagus
The action of chemically changing absorbed substance Assimilation
A fold of tissue that anchors and limits movement of a body part Frenulum
Hormone the small intestine secretes that stimulates release of pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder Cholecystokinin
Layer of connective tissue underneath a mucous membrane Submucosa
A protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice Chymotrypsin
A portion of the large intestine that passes downward along the left side of the abdominal cavity to the brim of the pelvis Descending Colon
The part of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the ileum to the anus; divided into the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal Large Intestine
Pouches in the wall of the large intestine Haustra
Hormone secreted from the small intestine that stimulates the pancreas to release pancreatic juice Secretin
The first portion of the small intestine that leads from the stomach to the jejunum Duodenum
A lymphatic capillary associated with a villus of the small intestine Lacteal
The secretion of the intestinal glands Intestinal Juice
A puouchlike portion of the large intestine attached to the small intestine Cecum
A portion of the pharynx in the posterior part of the oral cavity Oropharynx
Gland within the stomach wall that secretes gastric juice Gastric Gland
S-Shaped portion of the large intestine between the descending colon and the rectum Sigmoid Colon
Digestive organ located between the esophagus and the small intestine Stomach
Digestive enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of sucrose Sucrase
A premolar that is specialized for grinding hard particles of food Bicuspid Tooth
The tubular portion of the digestive tract that leads from the mouth to the anus Alimentary canal
Inferior outlet of the digestive tube Anus
Saclike organ associated with the liver that stores and concentrates bile Gallbladder
Substance pancreatic cells secrete that is enzmatically cleaved to yield trypsin Trypsinogen
Sphincter valve located at the distal end of the ileum where it joins the cecum Ileocecal valve
An enzyme that catalyzes decompositiion of nucleic acids Nuclease
The talking in of substances by cells or membranes Absorption
A glandular cell that secretes a watery fluid with a high enzyme content Serous Cell
Portion of the large intestine that passes upward on the right side of the abdomen from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver Ascending Colon
A protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice Carboxypeptidase
Fat-splitting enzyme in gastric juice Gastric Lipase
A fat-digesting enzyme Lipase
A portion of the large intestine that extends across the abdomen from right to left below the stomach Transverse Colon
A fleshy portion of the soft palate that hangs down above the root of the tongue Uvula
A cellular structure that stores inactive forms of protein-splitting enzymes in a pancreatic cell Zymogen Granule
An increase in the blood concentration of bicarbonate ions following a meal Alkaline Tide
The roof of the Mouth Palate
A small, tubular appendage that exyends outwards from the cecum of the large intestine; vermiform appendix Appendix
An enzyme in pancreatic juice that breaks down protein molecules Trypsin
Appendix Vermiform Appendix
Small collections of fat in the serous layer of the large intestinal wall Epiploic Appendage
The large intestine Colon
Hormone secreted by the stomach lining that stimulates secretion of gastric juice Gastrin
An air sac of a lung; a saclike structure Alveolus
A bonelike material that fastens the root of a tooth into its bony socket Cementum
A saclike, fluid-filled structure lined synovial membrane near a joint Bursa
Projection on the border of the jaw in which the bony sockets of the teeth are locted Alveolar Process
The discharge of feces from the rectum through the anus Defecation
Bonelike substance that forms the bulk of a tooth Dentin
opening inthe diaphragm through which the esophagus passes Esophageal Hiatus
A functional unit of the liver Hepatic Lobule
The taking of food or liquid into the body by way of the mouth Ingestion
Tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct Cystic Duct
inhibition of gastric (stomach) peristalsis and secretions when food enters the small intestine Enterogastric Reflex
Failure to absorb nutrients following digestion Malabsorption
Vitamin C; a water soluble vitamin Ascorbic Acid
Water-soluble vitamin; member of vitamin B complex biotin
Unit to measure heat energy and the energy content of foods Calorie
Organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a 1:2:1 ratio Carbohydrate
Polysaccharide abundant in plant tissues that human enzymes cannot break down Cellulose
Protein that contains adequate amounts of essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote normal growth and development Complete Protein
Flaplike, cartilaginous structure at back of tongue near entrance to tachea Epiglottis
Amino acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts Essential Amino Acid
Fatty Acid required for health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts Essential Fatty Acid
Protein that lacks adequate amounts of essential amino acids Incomplete Protein
Physical symptoms resulting from lack of specific nutrients Malnutrition
Element not found in organic compounds that is essential in human metabolism Mineral
Vitamin of the B-complex group; nicotinic acid Niacin
Digestive secretions of the pancreas Pancreatic Juice
Vitamin of the B-complex group Pantothenic acid
Fibrous membrane that surrounds a tooth and attaches it to the jawbone Periodontal Ligament
Network of interlaced nerves or blood vessels Plexus
Vitamin of B-complex group; vitamin B2 Riboflavin
Vitamin B1 Thiamine
Increasing intrathoracic pressure by forcing air from lungs against a closed glottis Valsalva's Maneuver
Digestion is? the breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb.
Mechanical digestion breaks? large pieces of food into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition
Chemical digestion breaks? down food into simpler chemicals
The organs of the digestive system carry out the processes of? ingestion, propulsion, absorptions, defecation, and digestion
The accessory organs of the digestive system are? salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
The alimentary canal is a ______ tube that passes through______ ? muscular tubs, the body’s ventral cavity
The structure of _____ how it _____ and is innervation are similar _______ its wall, moves food, throughout its length.
The four layers of the alimentary wall are? the mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa
The mucosa is located_____ and is composed of ______ ? as the inner lining and is composed of epithelial tissue, a small amount of connective tissue, and some smooth muscle.
The functions of the mucosa are? to protect the tissues beneath it, secrete mucus and enzymes, and to absorb nutrients.
The submucosa is located ______ and is composed of ______ ? deep to the mucosa and is composed of loose connective tissue, glands, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
The functions of the submucosa are? to protect the tissues beneath it, secrete mucus and enzymes, and to absorb nutrients
_______ and is composed of _______ ? The submucosa is located deep to the mucosa, loose connective tissue, glands, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
The functions of the serosa are? to nourish surrounding tissues and to carry away absorbed substances.
The two types of motor functions of the alimentary canal are? mixing and propelling
Mixing occurs when? smooth muscles in small segments of the tube contract rhythmically.
Peristalsis is ? a wavelike motion.
Peristalsis occurs when? a ring of contraction moves down the wall of the tube.
Branches of _____ Innervate the alimentary canal? the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
The innervation of the alimentary canal maintains ______ and regulates _______ ? muscular tone and regulates strength, rate, and velocity of muscular contractions?
The submucosal plexus is important for? controlling secretions by the gastrointestinal tract.
The myenteric plexus is important for? important for gastrointestinal motility.
The functions of parasympathetic impulses are? to increase the activities of the digestive system.
The functions of sympathetic impulses are? are to decrease the activities of the digestive system
The functions of the mouth are? are to receive food and to begin digestion.
Mastication is? chewing.
The mouth is surrounded by? lips, cheek, tongue, and palate.
The oral cavity is? the space between the tongue and palate
The vestibule of the mouth is? the space between the teeth, cheeks, and lips.
The cheeks form ______ and consist of ______ ? the lateral walls of the mouth and consist of skin, fat, muscles, and an inner moist lining
The lips surround _____ and consist of ______ ? the mouth opening and consist of skeletal muscles, sensory receptors, and skin.
The tongue is located? in the floor of the oral cavity.
_______ Membranes cover the tongue? Mucous
The frenulum of the tongue is? a membranous fold that anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
The body of the tongue is composed of? skeletal muscles.
Muscles of the tongue function to? mix food particles and push food to the back of the throat during swallowing
Papillae of the tongue are? rough projections on the surface of the tongue.
Functions of papillae are? are to provide friction and to house taste buds.
The root of the tongue is anchored to? the hyoid bone.
Lingual tonsils are located? on the root of the tongue.
The palate forms _______ and consists of _____ ? forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard part and a soft part.
The hard palate is formed by? the palatine processes of the maxillary bones and palatine bones.
The soft palate is formed by? a mucous membrane and muscles
The uvula is? a downward extension of the soft palate
The function of the uvula is? to prevent food or liquids from entering the nasal cavity.
Palatine tonsils are located? located in the back of the mouth on either side of the palate.
Pharyngeal tonsils are located? on the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate.
The primary teeth are? the first set of teeth to develop
The secondary teeth are? are the permanent teeth.
The secondary teeth consist of? 32 teeth.
The arrangement of secondary teeth are? two incisors, cuspid, two bicuspids, and three molars (from midline to back). 5. Wisdom teeth are the third set of molars.
Wisdom teeth are? the third set of molars.
Chewing increases? the surface area of food particles
Incisors are specialized to? bite off large pieces of food.
Cuspids are specialized to? grasp and tear food.
Bicuspids and molars are specialized to? grind food
The crown of a tooth is? the portion of the tooth above the gum line.
The root of a tooth is? the portion of the tooth below the gum line
The neck of a tooth is? the area where the crown and root meet.
Enamel consists of? calcium salts.
Dentin is? living cellular tissue beneath enamel.
The root canal is located ______ and contains ______ ? in the root of a tooth and contains blood vessels and nerves.
How long is the alimentary canal? About 8 meters long (27ft)?
Which organ sbsorbs the most alcohol? the Stomach
How long is the Esophagus? about 25cm (10 in.) long
What is the role of the gallbladder? Stores bile
What produces an alkaline substance that neutralizes the HCl in the gastric juice? Pancreas
How long is the small Intestine? Tubular organ, about 7 meters (20 feet) long
How long does the chyme stay in the small intestine? 3-10 hours
In what sequence does chyme pass through the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
In which part of the small intestine does most of the chemical digestion occur? duodenum is the section where the small intestine performs chemical digestion
How Long is the large intestine? 1.5 meters (5 feet) long
Normal time of Passage of feces through the Large intestine 3 – 5 days
At the hepatic flexure, the Ascending colon becomes the transverse colon
The reddish color of lips is due to? The reddish color of lips is due to the many blood vessels near their surfaces.
The pulp cavity is located, and contains? in the crown of the tooth and contains blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue called pulp.
Cementum is? bonelike material that surrounds the root.
A periodontal ligament is? is a fibrous structure that surrounds cementum and anchors the tooth to the jaw.
Salivary glands secrete? saliva
The functions of saliva are? to moisten food, bind food together, and begin the chemical digestion of carbohydrates
The three pairs of major salivary glands are? are parotid glands, submandibular glands, and sublingual glands
Two cell types of salivary glands are serous and mucous
Serous cells produce watery fluid that contains amylase
Mucous cells produce mucus
Amylase digests carbohydrates.
Salivary glands are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
Sympathetic fibers stimulate the glands to to secrete a small volume of viscous saliva.
Parasympathetic fibers stimulate the glands to secrete a large volume of watery saliva.
The largest of the major salivary glands is the parotid.
The parotid glands are located inferior to each ear
A parotid duct is located within the buccinator muscle and opens into the mouth just opposite the upper second molar on either side of the jaw.
The parotid glands secrete a water fluid rich in amylase.
The submandibular glands are in the the floor of the mouth on the inside surfaces of the lower jaws.
The submandibular glands secrete primarily serous fluid.
Ducts of submandibular glands open inferior to the tongue.
The sublingual glands are located on the floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue
The sublingual glands secrete primarily mucus.
The ducts of sublingual glands open beneath the tongue.
The pharynx is a cavity posterior to the nasal and oral cavities.
The pharynx and esophagus function in swallowing.
The pharynx connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus
The three divisions of the pharynx are the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
The nasopharynx is located behind the nasal cavity.
The nasopharynx provides a passageway for air
The oropharynx is located behind the oral cavity.
The oropharynx is a passageway for food and air
The laryngopharynx is located just inferior to the oropharynx
The laryngopharynx is a passageway to the esophagus.
Constrictor muscles function to pull the pharyngeal walls inward during swallowing.
The events of the first stage of swallowing are chewing of food and the mixing of food with saliva.
The events of the second stage of swallowing are pushing of food toward the pharynx and the triggering of the swallowing reflex
The events of the third stage of swallowing are movements of food through the esophagus and to the stomach.
The actions of the swallowing reflex are raising of soft palate, elevation of larynx and hyoid bone, pressing of tongue against soft palate, contraction of pharyngeal muscles, opening of the esophagus, and movement of food into the esophagus.
The esophagus is a passageway for food.
The esophagus propels food from _____ to the food from the pharynx to the stomach.
The esophagus descends through the thoracic cavity.
The esophageal hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm.
___________ are scattered throughout the submucosa of the esophagus. Mucous glands
The lower esophageal sphincter is located, and funtions to? where the esophagus and stomach join and functions to prevent regurgitation of food.
The shape of the stomach is J-shaped
The location of the stomach is just inferior to the diaphragm in the upper left portion of the abdominal cavity.
Rugae are thick folds in the lining of the stomach.
The functions of the stomach are to mix food with gastric juice, begin protein digestion, to begin a small amount of absorption, and movement of food into the small intestine.
The four regions of the stomach are cardiac, fundic, body, and plyloric.
The cardiac region is the region near the esophageal opening
The fundic region is a pouch that extends superior to the cardiac portion
The body of the stomach is the main part of the stomach.
The pyloric region is the narrow region that is continuous with the small intestine.
The pyloric sphincter is located _____ and functions to? between the pylorus and the duodenum and functions to control the movement of food into the small intestine
Gastric pits are openings of gastric glands.
The three cell types of gastric glands are parietal, chief, and mucous.
Pepsin is an enzyme that digests proteins.
Chief cells secrete digestive enzymes.
Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
Gastric juice is a mixture of the secretions of mucous, parietal, and chief cells
The function of pepsinogen is to be converted to pepsin when needed.
The function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is to convert pepsinogen into pepsin and to destroy pathogens.
The coating of the stomach is important for protecting the stomach wall from digestive enzymes and acids.
The function of intrinsic factor is to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12
Somatostatin is produced ____ and functions to? in the stomach and functions to inhibit acid secretion.
Parasympathetic innervation stimulates the release of gastric juice.
Gastrin is produced _____ and functions to? in the stomach and functions to increase the secretory activity of gastric glands.
The three stages of gastric secretion are cephalic, gastric, and intestinal.
The events of the cephalic phase are secretion of gastric juice before food enters the stomach.
The events of the intestinal phase are the movement of food into the small intestine.
Cholecystokinin is produced ____ and functions to? by the small intestine and functions to inhibit gastric secretions and decreases gastric motility
The stomach absorbs alcohol, some drugs, salts, and a small amount of water.
Most nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine.
A stomachache results from the rise of internal pressure in the stomach.
Chyme is? food substances that have been mixed with gastric juice.
Peristaltic waves push chyme toward the pylorus of the stomach.
Stomach contractions push chyme a little at a time into _____ and backwards into _____, mixing it further. the duodenum and backwards into the stomach, mixing it further.
The rate at which the stomach empties depends on? the fluidity of the chyme and its contents
______ usually pass first through the stomach? Liquids
The enterogastric reflex is a reflex involving the small intestine and the stomach. It is triggered by distension of the small intestine wall and inhibits peristalsis in the stomach to slow down movement of food into the duodenum
Vomiting results from a complex reflex that empties the stomach in the reverse of the normal direction.
The pancreas is located close to the duodenum posterior to the parietal peritoneum.
Pancreatic acinar cells produce ______ and make up the _______ ? digestive enzymes and make up the bulk of the pancreas.
Acini are? clusters of acinar cells
The pancreatic ducts extends _____ and empties into ____? the hepatopancreatic ampulla and empties into the duodenum.
Hepatopancreatic ampulla is? a dilated tube that receives the pancreatic duct and hepatic duct.
The hepatopancreatic sphincter is the sphincter that surrounds the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Pancreatic juice contains many enzymes and bicarbonate ions.
The function of pancreatic amylase is to digest carbohydrates
The function of pancreatic lipase is digest lipids.
The functions of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are? to digest proteins.
Zymogen granules are granules that store pancreatic enzymes.
The function of trypsinogen is to be converted to trypsin.
The functions of nucleases are to digest nucleic acids
Parasympathetic fibers cause the pancreas to release pancreatic juice
The function of secretin is to stimulate the pancreas to release pancreatic juice with a high concentration of bicarbonate ions.
The release of cholecystokinin is triggered by the presence of chyme in the small intestine.
The action of cholecystokinin on the pancreas is? to release pancreatic juice that has a high concentration of digestive enzymes.
The largest internal organ is the liver.
The liver is located in the upper right abdominal quadrant.
The two large lobes of the liver are the right and left.
The falciform ligament is a fold that separates the lobes of the liver and anchors the liver to the posterior abdominal wall.
The two small lobes of the liver are caudate and quadrate.
The porta hepatic is where blood vessels and ducts enter or exit the liver.
The coronary ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the diaphragm.
Hepatic lobules are divisions of a liver lobe.
A hepatic lobule consists of many hepatic cells radiating outward from a central vein.
Hepatic sinusoids are vascular channels in hepatic lobules.
Kupffer cells are macrophages of the liver.
Bile canaliculi are canals within hepatic lobules that receive secretions from hepatic cells
Hepatic ducts are formed from bile ductules of neighboring hepatic lobules
The liver carries on many important metabolic activities.
The liver plays a key role in carbohydrate metabolism by helping maintain the normal blood glucose concentrations.
The liver plays a key role in protein metabolism by deaminating amino acids, forming urea, synthesizing plasma proteins, and converting amino acids to other forms of amino acids.
The liver stores glycogen, iron, and vitamins A,D, and B12
Liver cells help destroy worn out red blood cells.
The liver removes? toxic substances from the blood.
The liver’s role in digestion is to secrete bile
Bile is secreted by hepatic cells
Bile contains water, bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, and electrolytes.
Hepatic cells use cholesterol to make bile salts.
Bile pigments are products of the breakdown of hemoglobin.
Jaundice results from an accumulation of bile pigments in the blood stream.
The gallbladder is located inferior to the liver.
The cystic duct is _____ and opens into _____ ? the duct of the gallbladder and opens into the common bile duct.
The common bile duct is formed from ______ and opens into ______ ? the cystic duct and common hepatic duct and opens into duodenum.
Gallstones form when bile is too concentrated, hepatic cells secrete to much cholesterol, or if the gallbladder is inflamed.
Cholecystokinin triggers the gallbladder to? release bile.
Cholecystokinin is released in response to? presence of lipids and proteins in the small intestine.
Functions of bile salts are to aid digestive enzymes by emulsifying fats, and facilitate the absorption of fat soluble vitamins
Emulsification is the breaking of fat globules into smaller droplets.
Lack of bile salts results in poor lipid absorption and vitamin deficiencies.
The small intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine.
The small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver.
The functions of the small intestine are to complete digestion, absorption of nutrients, and movement of solid wastes to the large intestine.
The three parts of the small intestine are duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
The duodenum is located posterior to the parietal peritoneum just beneath the stomach.
The jejunum is located in the abdominal cavity between the duodenum and ileum.
The ileum is located in the abdominal cavity between the jejunum and large intestine.
Mesentery is ______ and supports _______ ? double-layered fold of peritoneum and supports the blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that supply the intestinal wall
The greater omentum is? a double fold of peritoneal membrane that drapes like an apron from the stomach, over the
The functions of the omentum are? to prevent the spread of infections in the peritoneal cavity.
Normal Range of Bowel sounds 4 to 32 per minute
The liver plays a key role in lipid metabolism by oxidizing fatty acids, synthesizing lipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
The velvety appearance of the inner wall of the small intestine is due to intestinal villi.
Intestinal villi are tiny projections of the mucosa of the small intestine.
The functions of villi are to increase the surface area of the lining of the small intestine.
Each villus consists of a layer of simple columnar epithelium and a core of connective tissue containing blood capillaries, a lacteal, and nerves
A lacteal is lymphatic capillary.
Microvilli increase the surface area intestinal cells
Intestinal glands are between the bases of adjacent villi.
Plicae circulares are circular folds in the mucosa of the small intestine.
Brunner’s glands are ______ and are located ______ ? mucous-secreting glands and are located in the submucosa of the proximal portion of the duodenum.
Brunner’s glands secrete? alkaline mucus.
The enzymes embedded in the membranes of epithelial cells of the small intestine are? peptidase, sucrase, maltase, lactase, lipase, and enterokinase.
The functions of peptidases are to digest proteins
The functions of sucrase, maltase, and lactase are? to digest sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
The functions of intestinal lipase are? to digest lipids
__________ stimulate the duodenal mucous glands to release mucus. Stomach contents entering the small intestine
Direct contact with chyme ______ goblet cells and intestinal glands to ______ ? chemically and mechanically stimulates the goblet cells and intestinal glands to secrete their products.
Distension of the intestinal wall stimulates? the parasympathetic reflexes that cause intestinal secretions.
The most important absorbing organ is the the small intestine.
Carbohydrate digestion begins ____ and is completed ______ ? begins in the mouth and is completed in the small intestine.
Monosaccharides are absorbed by facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Protein digestion begins _____ and is complete ______ ? in the stomach and is completed in the small intestine. 5. Amino acids are absorbed by active transport.
Amino acids are absorbed by? active transport.
Fat molecules are digested? almost entirely by the small intestine.
Chylomicrons are? lipoproteins that contain lipids and proteins.
Chylomicrons are carried? to the blood by lymph.
Chylomicrons in the blood transport? dietary fats to muscles and adipose cells
VLDL molecules, produced in the liver, transport? triglycerides synthesized from excess dietary carbohydrates.
LDL delivers cholesterol____________, HDL remove cholesterol from _________ and ______________ it to the liver? to tissues, HDL remove cholesterol from tissues and deliver it to the liver.
The ions absorbed by the intestinal villi are sodium, potassium, chloride, nitrate, and bicarbonate.
Water is absorbed by osmosis.
Segmentation is the major mixing movement of the small intestine.
Chyme moves ______ through the small intestine? slowly through the small intestine.
Parasympathetics enhance _______ and sympathetics _________ ? mixing and peristaltic movements and sympathetics inhibits mixing and peristaltic movements.
A peristaltic rush is? the rapid sweeping the contents into the large intestine.
Diarrhea results from? a peristaltic rush
The ileocecal sphincter joins? the small intestine’s ileum and large intestine’s cecum.
The large intestine is located? primarily in the abdominal cavity and part of the pelvic cavity.
The functions of the large intestine are are to form feces, eliminate solid wastes, and to absorb remaining water and electrolytes from chyme.
The parts of the large intestine are cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
The cecum is initial portion of the large intestine.
The vermiform appendix is located _____ and consists of _____ ? initial portion of the large intestine.
The four parts of the colon are ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon.
The ascending colon is located on the right side of the abdominal cavity.
The transverse colon is located between the ascending and descending colon.
The descending colon is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
The sigmoid colon is an s-shaped portion of the colon off the descending colon.
The rectum is the continuation of the sigmoid colon.
The anal canal is the continuation of the rectum.
Anal columns are folds of mucous membranes in the anal canal.
The anus is the opening of the anal canal.
Two sphincters of the anus are the internal and external.
The internal anal sphincter is composed? of smooth muscle.
The external anal sphincter is composed? of skeletal muscle.
Teniae coli are bands of smooth muscle that extend the length of the large intestine.
Haustra are pouches of the large intestinal wall created by teniae coli.
Epiploic appendages are collections of fat in the serosa on the outer surface of the large intestine.
Mucus secretion into the large intestine is controlled by mechanical stimulation and parasympathetic impulses.
The functions of mucus in the large intestine are to form and store feces, eliminate feces, and absorb remaining water and electrolytes from chyme
Chyme entering the large intestine contains few nutrients, nondigestible materials, water, electrolytes, mucus, and bacteria.
The large intestine can absorb water and electrolytes.
Intestinal flora is a bacterial population that exists in the large intestine.
The functions of intestinal flora are to synthesize some vitamins and to produce gas
The movements of the large intestine are similar although less frequent than those of the small intestine.
Mass movements are produced when a large section of the intestinal wall constricts vigorously
The defecation reflex is triggered by holding a deep breath and contracting the abdominal wall muscles.
The actions of the defecation reflex are to increase internal abdominal pressure and the forcing go feces into the rectum. Peristaltic waves are triggered and anal sphincters relax
A person can inhibit defecation by contracting the external anal sphincter.
Feces are composed of materials that were not digested or absorbed, some water, electrolytes, mucus, and bacteria.
The pungent odor or feces results from a variety of compounds that bacteria produce.
Maintaining healthy teeth requires frequent dental checks, cleaning and plaque removal, plus care of the gums.
The effects of aging on teeth include thinning of enamel, thickening of cementum, receding of gums, and loosening of teeth.
Dry mouths in elderly people is usually a result of side effects of drugs.
Frequent heartburn may be the result of? the slowing of peristalsis in the stomach.
Effects of aging on the small intestine include decreased efficiency in absorbing nutrients and vitamins.
The effects of aging on the large intestine include thinning of the lining and decreased mucus production that leads to constipation
The effects of aging on the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder include a decline in their secretions.
Physical symptoms resulting from lack of specific nutrients Malnutrition
Two small, rounded bodies posterior to the hypothalamus involved with reflexes associated with the sense of smell Mammillary Body
A 5-Carbon sugar in RNA Ribose
Serous Fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity Ascites
A low concentration of blood sodium Hyponatremia
A polysaccharide very abundant in plant tissues that human enzymes cannot breakdown Cellulose
An essential mineral present in a minute amount within the body; trace element Micromineral
Niacin Nicotinic Acid
Vitamin B1 Thiamine
A substance that inhibits oxidation of another substance Antioxidant
A disorder of binge eating followed by purging Bulima
Disorder caused by the fear of becoming obese: includes loss of appetite and inability to maintain a normal minimum body weight Anorexia Nervosa
When the caloric intake of the body equals its caloric output Energy Balance
Fatty Acid required for the health that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts Essential Fatty Acid
Rate at which metabolic reactions occur when the body is at rest Basal Metabolic Rate
A nutrient necessary for growth, normal functioning, and maintaining life that the diet must supply because the body cannot synthesize it. Essential Nutrient
Excessive intake of vitamins Hypervitaminosis
The physiologically active form of niacin Niacinamide
Condition in which the quantity of nitrogen ingested equals the quantity excreted Nitrogen Balance
The study of the sources, actions, and interactions of nutrients Nutrition
A device used to measure the heat energy content of foods; Bomb Calorimeter Calorimeter
A Monosaccharide Simple Sugar
A coenzyme synthesized from thiamine that oxidizes carbohydrates Cocarboxylase
An inorganic substance that is necessary for metabolism and is one of a group that accounts for 75% of the mineral elements within the body; Major Mineral Macromineral
Synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates such as amino acids Gluconeogenesis
Basal Metabolic Rate BMR
A unit used to measure heat energy and the energy contents of foods Calorie
Acetyl Coenzyme A. Coenzyme A
A monosaccaride in the blood that is the primary source of cellular energy Glucose
Loss of blood from the circulatory system; bleeding Hemorrhage
Elevated concentration of blood sodium Hypernatremia
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin
Starvation due to profound nutrient Deficiency Marasmus
A vitamin of the B-Complex Group; Nicotinic Acid Niacin
A water-soluble vitamin; a member of the vitamin B Complex Biotin
A polysaccaride that stores gluclose in the liver and muscles Glycogen
A chemical substance that must be supplied to the body from the environment Nutrient
A disaccaride in milk; Milk Sugar Lactose
A protein that contains adequate amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote normal growth and development Complete Protein
Glucose Dextrose
A monosaccharide component of the disaccharide lactose Galactose
One of the water-soluble vitamins; Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
A unit of weight equivalent to 1,000 Grams Kilogram
Starvation resulting from a switch from breast milk to food deficient in nutrients Kwashiorkor
Excess adipose tissue; exceeding desirable weight by more than 20% Obesity
A vitamin of the B-Complex Group Pantothenic Acid
A vitamin of the B-Complex Group; Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine
A protein that lacks adequate amounts of essential amino acids Incomplete Protein
Vitamin E Alphatocopherol
A vitamin of the B-Complex Group; Vitamin B12 Riboflavin
Nutrients are? chemical substances supplied from the environment that an organism requires for survival.
Macronutrients are? carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Micronutrients are? essential in small daily doses and include vitamins and minerals
Besides nutrients, the body also requires? water.
Digestion breaks down? nutrients to sizes that can be absorbed and transported in the bloodstream
Metabolism refers to? the ways that nutrients are altered chemically and used in anabolism and catabolism of chemical compounds to support the activities of life.
Anabolism is? the synthesis part of metabolism.
Catabolism is? the decomposition part of metabolism
Essential nutrients are? nutrients that human cells cannot synthesize
Leptin regulates? fat stores in the long term
Cholecystokinin signals_______after eating while______stimulates appetite? satiety after eating while ghrelin stimulates appetite
Carbohydrates are? organic compounds and include the sugars and starches
The body uses carbohydrates for? energy to power cellular processes
Sources of polysaccharides are? starch from grains and vegetables and glycogen from meats. - polysaccharides
Sources of disaccharides are? milk, sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, and molasses. - disaccharides
Sources of monosaccharides are? honey and fruits.
Digestion breaks carbohydrates? into monosaccharides.
Cellulose provides? bulk against which the muscular wall of the digestive system can push.
Other sources of fiber are? are hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin - Fiber
Monosaccharides that are absorbed from the digestive tract include? fructose, galactose, and glucose
The liver enzymes______that_______? catalyze reactions that convert fructose and galactose to glucose.
Glycogenesis is_______and occurs in_______? the formation of glycogen and occurs in the liver and muscles.
Glycogenolysis is_____and occurs in_______? the break down of glycogen into glucose and occurs in most body cells.
Excess glucose that cannot be stored as glycogen is converted to? fat, Adipose.
Cells use some carbohydrates to produce? RNA and DNA
Gluconeogenesis is______and occurs in______? the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources and occurs in the liver.
A recommended daily carbohydrate intake is? about 125-175 grams.
The average diet contains______of carbohydrates daily? 200-300 grams of carbohydrates daily.
Lipids are_____that include______? organic substances that include fats, oils, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
The functions of lipids are? to supply energy for cellular processes and to help build cellular structures
Triglycerides are found in? plant and animal based foods
Saturated fats are found in? foods of animal origin
Unsaturated fats are found in? seeds, nuts, and plant oils. - UF
Cholesterol is found in? liver, egg yolks, whole milk, butter, cheese, and meats. - Cholesterol
Fats mainly supply? energy.
Gram for gram, fats contain______as carbohydrates or proteins.? more than twice as much chemical energy as carbohydrates or proteins.
Before a triglyceride molecule can release energy, it must undergo? hydrolysis.
Digestion breaks triglycerides down into? fatty acids and glycerol.
Glycerol and fatty acids are transported in the_____to the________? lymph to the blood then to tissues.
Beta-oxidation is? a series of reactions that converts some fatty acids to acetyl coenzyme A.
Fatty acid oxidases function to? break down fatty acids
Excess acetyl CoA is converted to? form ketone bodies.
Glycerol is used to? synthesize glucose or can enter metabolic pathways leading to the citric acid cycle
Glycerol and fatty acids can react together to form and______can be stored in______? fat molecules and can be stored in fat tissue.
The liver can convert fatty acids to? other forms of fatty acids
Essential fatty acids are? fatty acids that the liver cannot synthesize.
The liver uses free fatty acids to synthesize? triglycerides, phospholipids, and lipoproteins
The liver regulates the amount of cholesterol in the body by? synthesizing cholesterol and releasing it into the blood or by removing cholesterol from the blood and excreting it into the bile.
Cholesterol is not an energy source but it used to? to build cell and organelle membranes and certain hormones
The American Heart Associate recommends that the diet not exceed___________from fat? 30% from fat.
Dietary fats must supply the required amounts of_______vitamins? fat-soluble vitamins
Proteins are polymers of? amino acids.
Functions of proteins are? to make cellular structures, act as enzymes, antibodies, clotting factors, etc.
Deamination is_______and occurs in the______? the removal of nitrogen containing portions from amino acids and occurs in the liver.
Urea is? a waste product from deamination
Using structural proteins to generate energy causes? the tissue-wasting characteristic of starvation.
Foods rich in proteins are? meats, fish, poultry, cheese, nuts, milk, eggs, and cereals - Proteins
Essential amino acids are? amino acids the body cannot synthesize.
All twenty amino acids must be present in the body for? growth and tissue repair to occur.
Complete proteins contain? adequate amounts of essential amino acids to maintain human body tissues and promote normal growth and development.
Incomplete proteins has too little? of the essential amino acids and are unable by themselves to maintain human tissues or to support normal growth and development.
Sources of complete proteins are? milk, eggs, and meats.
Nitrogen balance is? a condition in which the amount of nitrogen taken in is equal to the amount excreted.
A person who is starving has a negative nitrogen balance because? the amount of nitrogen excreted as a result of amino acid oxidation exceeds the amount the diet replaces.
Examples of persons with positive nitrogen balances are? growing children, a pregnant woman, or an athlete in training.
The amount of protein requires varies according to? body size, metabolic rate, and nitrogen balance condition
The recommended intake of protein per day is? 0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight.
A pregnant woman requires______extra grams per day and a nursing mother requires_______extra grams per day? 30 extra grams per day and a nursing mother requires 20 extra grams per day.
Nutritional edema results from? a decrease in the level of plasma proteins needed to maintain colloid osmotic pressure of plasma.
____,_____,and _______ Supply Energy? Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
If the diet is deficient of energy-supplying nutrients? structural molecules may be gradually consumed.
Excess intake of energy supplying nutrients? may lead to obesity.
The amount of potential energy a food contains can be? expressed as calories.
A calorie is defined as? the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
A large calorie is? 1,000 times greater than a calorie and is called a kilocalorie.
A kilocalorie is? the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water by 1 degree Celcius.
A_______is used to measure caloric contents of food? bomb calorimeter
Caloric values determined in a bomb calorimeter are somewhat higher___________ than________because__________? than the amount of energy that metabolic oxidation actually releases because nutrients generally are not completely absorbed from the digestive tract
Cellular oxidation yields on average about from 1 gram of carbohydrate, ______from one gram of protein, and_____from one gram of fat?. about 4.1 calories from one gram of protein, and 9.5 calories from one gram of fat.
The factors that influence energy needs are? include basal metabolic rate, degree of muscular activity, body temperature, and rate of growth.
Basal metabolic rate is? the rate at which the body expends energy under resting conditions
_______can be used to estimate a person’s BMR Tests of thyroid function
Daily Reference Intakes (DRI’s) The average daily intake of healthy individuals and the basis for the daily values on the Nutrition Facts label
Kilo calorie (Kcal) A measurement of energy or the amount of energy a specific food can provide to the body.
Parenteral Nutrition The term used to describe intravenous feeding. Pernicious Anemia: A progressive macrocytic megaloblastic anemia, affecting mainly older people.
Lipids A group of organic substances of a fatty nature that are insoluble in water and that are necessary in the body for good health
Residue Food, fiber and other substances that remain in the colon after digestion is completed.
Medical Nutrition Therapy The use of specific nutrition services to treat an illness, injury, or condition. It involved modifying the diet in order to meet the nutrition requirements created by the disease or injury
Obesity An excess of adipose tissue or body fat
Lipoproteins Molecules made of lipid surrounded by protein, they facilitate the transport of lipids in the bloodstream. Types include chylomicrons, high-density Lipoprotein *HDL's), low-densigy Lipoprotein (LDL's).
Nitrogen Balance The amount of nitrogen that is consumed compared to the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given period of time.
Nutrient dense foods Foods which contain large amounts of nutrients relative to kilo calories.
Vegan Strict vegetarian who completely eliminates all foods of animal origin from their diet.
Satiety A feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food, particularly foods containing dietary fat
Therapeutic diet A diet modified for nutrient content, texture, consistency, or meal frequency.
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) The administration of a hypertonic solution into a large central vein.
Tube feeding The administration of nutritionally balanced liquefied foods or formula through a tube inserted into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum by way of the nasoenteric tube or feeding ostomy
Amino Acid The building blocks of protein
Essential Nutrient Nutrients that the human body cannot make in amounts necessary for good health, and therefore must be obtained from the diet
Fiber Generic term for non-digestible chemical substances found in plants.
Anabolism The buildup or constructive phase of metabolism.
Glycogen A polysaccharide, the body's storage form of carbohydrate in the liver and skeletal muscles.
Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by self-imposed starvation
Hydrogenation A process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it solid at room temperature and less likely to turn rancid.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) The amount of energy used by the body at rest to maintain vital functions
Body Mass Index (BMI) Medical standard used to define obesity, defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared
Lipids A class of chemical substances also called sterols. Synthesized in the liver or obtained from foods of animal origin
Catabolism The breakdown or destructive phase of metabolism
Dumping Syndrome May occur after a partial or total gastrectomy or gastric bypass
Enteral Nutrition Administration of nutrients into the GI tract.
How many minutes per day of exercise are recommended to achieve weight loss 60-90 minutes
The recommended fiber intake for children, and adults 20-35 mg
Health attributes that fiber has Soften stools,Relieves constipation,Reduces the risk of diverticulosis, Gives a feeling of fullness (aids in wt loss),Reduces the risk of hemorrhoids, Prevents the absorption cholesterol
vitamin An ORGANIC compound needed by the body
a mineral An INORGANIC compound found in the earth
unsaturated fats Avocadoes, oils, peanuts, soybeans, corn oil, and most fish - UF
What is responsible for energy metabolism, oxygen transport and used in the body via hemoglobin and myoglobin. IRON
Simple Carbohydrates Fruit, honey, high-fructose corn syrup, table sugar and brown sugar
Medical Nutrition therapy Use of specific nutritional services and interventions to treat an illness, injury or condition
diet is commonly used as the first diet order postoperatively Clear liquid diet
DYSPHAGIA DIET patient has impaired swallowing difficulties
support someone with limited chewing ability (Dental problems or missing teeth) MECHANICALLY ALTERED DIET
RENAL DIET diet may restrict proteins, sodium, phosphorus, fluids and potassium
diet is designed to increase fecal bulk, promote regularity and slow glucose absorption HIGH FIBER DIET
three risk factors cannot be changed with diet, exercise or medications Heredity/race, age and Gender
diet is used in the treatment of obesity and to prevent excess weight gain Kilo-Calorie Controlled Diet
How many inches are considered "excess abdominal fat" Men >40 in Women >35
Type I Diabetes the body’s failure to produce insulin
Type II Diabetes insufficient insulin produced by the pancreas or the body does not properly use insulin
3500 Calories This amount of calories must be lost in order to lose1 pound of fat
People with this eating disorder are usually obese Binge eating disorder
Being overweight or obese increases your risk of Hypertension, Type 2 DM, Gallstones, Sleep apnea, and Osteoarthritis
lifecycle consists of little foods containing Vitamins A and C and Folic Acid Adolescents
Loss of muscle mass, possible mental changes or physical impairments occur in this lifecycle. Older Adulthood
lifecycle stage characterized by a period of rapid growth and development Infancy
stage of life where an individual’s appetite generally tapers off and the growth rate slows Childhood
diet of this age group often consists of kilocalorie-rich, nutrient-poor snack foods and other fast foods Adolescents
lifecycle is characterized by a decrease in energy and activity levels Adulthood
Number of extra calories needed during pregnancy 300
Number of extra calories needed during lactation/breast feeding 500
Sources of incomplete proteins are? corn and legumes. - IP
The BMR indicates? the total amount of energy expended in a given time period to support the activities of such organs as the brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys.
The BMR for an average adult indicates a requirement for about 1 calorie or energy per hour for each kilogram of body weight.
BMR varies with sex, body size, body temperature, and level of endocrine gland activity.
________requires the body’s greatest expenditure of energy. Maintaining the basal metabolic rate
Growing children and pregnant women require more calories because? their bodies are actively producing new tissues.
A state of energy balance exists when? caloric intake in the form of foods equals caloric output from the basal metabolic rate and muscular activities.
A positive energy balance is__________and body weight________? when caloric intake exceeds the output and body weight increases.
A pnegative energy balance is__________and body weight________? when the caloric output exceeds intake and body weight decreases.
The most common nutritional disorders reflect? calorie imbalances.
Overweight is defined as? exceeding desirable weight by 10% to 20%.
Obesity is? exceeding desirable weight by more than 20%.
When a person needs to gain weight, diet can be altered to include? more calories and to emphasize particular macronutrients.
Vitamins are? organic compounds other than carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins required in small amounts for normal metabolic processes but that body cells cannot synthesize in adequate amounts.
Provitamins are? precursors to vitamins.
Vitamins can be classified based on? solubility.
Fat-soluble vitamins are? vitamins A, D, E and K.
Water-soluble vitamins are? the B vitamins and vitamin C.
The factors that affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption are? the same factors that affect lipid absorption.
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored__________and cooking/food processing___________? in various tissues and cooking/food processing generally does not destroy them.
Vitamin A is synthesized from________and is stored in__________? carotenes and is stored in the liver.
Vitamin A is stable in________and unstable in_________? heat, acids, and bases and unstable in light. - A
Functions of vitamin A are? to help synthesize visual pigments, mucoproteins, and mucopolysaccharides. It is also needed for normal bone and teeth development and for maintenance of epithelial cells.
Sources of vitamin A are? liver, fish, whole milk, butter, leafy green vegetables, yellow and orange vegetables, and fruits. - A
Excess vitamin A produces_________and a deficiency produces_________? nausea, headache, dizziness, hair loss and birth defects and a deficiency produces night blindness and degeneration of epithelial tissues
Vitamin D is a group of_________and is stored_______? steroids and is stored in the liver, skin, brain, spleen, and bones.
Vitamin D is resistant to? heat, oxidation, acids, and bases. - D
The functions of vitamin D are? to promote absorption of calcium and phosphorus the development of teeth and bones.
Sources of vitamin D are? skin, milk, egg yolk, fish, liver oils, and fortified foods. - D
An excess of vitamin D produces_______and a deficiency produces________? diarrhea, calcification of soft tissues, and renal damage and a deficiency produces rickets, bone decalcification, and weakening.
Vitamin E is stored in muscles and adipose tissue. - E
Vitamin E is resistant to______and_______? heat and visible light and unstable in oxygen and UV light - E
Functions of vitamin E are? to prevent oxidation of vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids and to maintain stability of cell membranes.
Sources of vitamin E are? cereal seeds, salad oils, margarine, shortenings, fruits, nuts, and vegetables. - E
An excess of vitamin E produces_______and a deficiency produces________? hypertension and a deficiency produces rare, uncertain effects.
Vitamin K is resistant to_______and Destroyed by__________? heat and destroyed by acids, bases, and light. - K
Vitamin K is stored? in the liver. - K
Functions of vitamin K are? to promote blood clotting. - K
A deficiency of vitamin K produce? easy bruising and bleeding and excess vitamin K causes jaundice in newborns, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.
Sources of vitamin K are? leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, pork liver, soy oil, tomatoes, and cauliflower - K
Thiamine is vitamin____and is destroyed by____? B1 and is destroyed by heat and oxygen.
The functions of thiamine are? to aid in oxidation of carbohydrates and ribose synthesis. - B1
Sources of thiamine are? lean meats, liver, eggs, whole-grain cereals, and legumes. - B1
Deficiencies of thiamine produce? beriberi, muscular weakness, and enlargement of heart. - B1
Riboflavin is vitamin ________, is stable to_______and unstable in________? B2, is stable to heat, acids, and oxidation and unstable in bases and UV light.
The functions of riboflavin are? to help in oxidation of glucose and fatty acids.
Sources of riboflavin are? meats, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, and whole-brain cereals. - B2
Deficiencies of riboflavin produce? dermatitis and blurred vision.
Niacin is stable in______and is synthesized from___________? heat, acids, and bases and is synthesized from tryptophan. - Niacin
The functions of niacin are? to help in the oxidation of glucose and the synthesis of proteins, fats, and nucleic acids.
Sources of niacin are? liver, lean meats, peanuts, and legumes. - niacin
An excess of niacin produces______And a deficiency produces_______? acute toxicity with effects such as flushing, wheezing, vasodilation, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting; chronic toxicity could affect the liver and a deficiency produces pellagra, photosensitive dermatitis, diarrhea, and mental disorders.
Pantothenic acid is destroyed by? heat, acids, and bases - pantothenic acid
The functions of pantothenic acid are? to aid in oxidation of carbohydrates and fats.
Sources of pantothenic acid are? meats, whole-grain cereals, legumes, milk, fruits, and vegetables. - pantothenic acid
Vitamin B6 is stable in_______and unstable in_______? heat and acids and unstable in bases and UV light. - B6
The functions of vitamin B6 are? to promote synthesis of various amino acids, niacin, antibodies, and nucleic acids.
Sources of vitamin B6 are? liver, meats, bananas, avocadoes, beans, peanuts, whole-grain cereals, and egg yolk. - B6
An excess of vitamin B6 produces? burning pains, numbness, clumsiness, diminished tendon reflexes, and paralysis.
Cyanocobalamin is vitamin _________ and is stable in_______? B12 and is stable in heat.
The absorption of cyanocobalamin is regulated? by intrinsic factor.
The functions of cyanocobalamin are? to promote synthesis of nucleic acids, metabolism of carbohydrates, synthesis of myelin, and red blood cells.
Sources of cyanocobalamin are? liver, meats, milk, eggs, and cheese. - cyanocobalamin
A deficiency of cyanocobalamin produces? pernicious anemia.
Folacin is unstable in_______and is stored________? acids, heat, and bases and is stored the liver. - folacin
The functions of folacin are? to promote metabolism of certain amino acids, DNA, and red blood cells.
Sources of folacin are? liver, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain cereals, and legumes. - folacin
A deficiency of folacin produces? megaloblastic anemia
Biotin is stable in_______and unstable in________? heat, acids, and light and unstable in bases. - biotin
The functions of biotin are? are to promote metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids and synthesis of nucleic acids.
Sources of biotin are? liver, egg yolk, nuts, legumes, and mushrooms. - biotin
Ascorbic acid is vitamin _________ and is stable in________but unstable in________? C and is stable in acids but unstable in heat, light, and bases.
Functions of ascorbic acid are? to promote synthesis of collagen, folinic acid, metabolism of certain amino acids, absorption of iron and synthesis of hormones from cholesterol.
Sources of ascorbic acid are? citrus fruits, tomatoes, potatoes, and leafy green vegetables. - ascorbic acid
A deficiency of ascorbic acid produces? scurvy, a lowered resistance to infection, and slow wound healing
Minerals are? inorganic elements that are essential in human metabolism.
Minerals are usually extracted from____, and humans obtain them by________? the soil by plants, and humans obtain them by eating plants or animals that have eaten the plants.
Minerals are responsible for_______ of body weight and are most concentrated in________? 4% of body weight and are most concentrated in the bones and teeth.
The minerals________are very abundant in bones and teeth? calcium and phosphate are very abundant in bones and teeth.
Minerals are usually incorporated into? organic molecules.
Minerals compose parts of? the structural materials of all cells.
Other functions of minerals are? to assist enzymes, contribute to osmotic pressure of body fluids, help conduct nerve impulses, contract muscle fibers, coagulate blood, and maintain pH.
The physiologically active form of minerals is? the ionized form.
Other major minerals are? Calcium and phosphorus are the most abundant of the major minerals accounting for nearly 75% by weight of the mineral elements in the body. 2. Other major minerals are potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium.
Calcium is primarily distributed? in bones and teeth. - calcium
Functions of calcium are? to serve as structural material for bones and teeth, to promote nerve impulse conduction, muscle fiber contraction, blood coagulation, membrane permeability, and activation of certain enzymes
Sources of calcium are? milk products, fish with bones, and leafy green vegetables. - calcium
A calcium deficiency in children causes_____and in adults may cause______? stunted growth, misshapen bones, and enlarged wrists and ankles and in adults may cause thinning bones.
Phosphorus is primarily? distributed in teeth and bones. - Phosphorus
Functions of phosphorus are? to serve as structural materials for bones and teeth, and to promote nearly all metabolic reactions, synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, some enzymes, and some vitamins. It is also a component of cell membranes and ATP.
Sources of phosphorus are? meats, cheeses, nuts, whole-grain cereals, milk and legumes. - phosphorous
Potassium is distributed? widely throughout the body but mostly inside cells.
Functions of potassium are to help maintain intracellular osmotic pressure and regulate pH, to promote metabolism, nerve impulse conduction, and muscle fiber contraction. - potassium
A deficiency of potassium produces? muscular weakness, cardiac abnormalities, and edema.
Sources of potassium are? avocados, dried apricots, meats, nuts, potatoes, and bananas - potassium
Sulfur is distributed? widely but is abundant in skin, hair, and nails.
Functions of sulfur are? to serve as structural parts of certain amino acids, thiamine, insulin, biotin, and mucopolysaccharides.
Sources of sulfur are? meats, milk, eggs, and legumes. - sulfur
Sodium is distributed? widely but mostly occurs in extracellular fluids. It is also bound to organic salts of bone.
Functions of sodium are? to help maintain osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids and to regulate water movement. It also promotes nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction and aids in regulation of pH and in transport of substances across cell membranes. - sodium
An excess of sodium produces______and a Deficiency produces_______? hypertension and edema and a deficiency produces nausea, muscle cramps, and convulsions.
Sources of sodium are? table salt, ham, sauerkraut, cheese, and graham crackers. - sodium
Chlorine is distributed? closely associated with sodium and in cerebrospinal fluid and gastric juice.
Functions of chlorine are? to help maintain osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids, to regulate pH, and to maintain electrolyte balance. It also is essential for the formation of hydrochloric acid and aids in the transport of carbon dioxide by red blood cells.
Sources of chlorine are? table salt, ham, sauerkraut, cheese, and graham crackers. - chlorine
Magnesium is distributed? in bones. - magnesium
Functions of magnesium are? to promote metabolic reactions in mitochondria associated with ATP production and to help breakdown ATP to ADP
An excess of magnesium produces________and a deficiency produces________? diarrhea and a deficiency produces neuromuscular disturbances
Sources of magnesium are? milk, dairy products, legumes, nuts, and leafy green vegetables. - magnesium
Trace elements are? essential minerals found in minute amounts.
Examples of trace elements include? iron, manganese, copper, iodine, cobalt, zinc, fluorine, selenium, and chromium
Iron is distributed in? blood, liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Functions of iron are? to promote formation of hemoglobin, vitamin A, and various enzymes. - iron
Sources of iron are? liver, meats, apricots, raisins, cereals, legumes, and molasses. - iron
An excess of iron produces_____and a deficiency produces_______? liver damage and a deficiency produces anemia.
Manganese is distributed? liver, kidneys, and the pancreas. - manganese
Functions of manganese are? to synthesize certain enzymes. - manganese
Sources of manganese are? nuts, legumes, cereals, and leafy green vegetables. - manganese
Copper is distributed? liver, heart and brain. - copper
Functions of copper are? to promote hemoglobin synthesis, bone development, melanin production, and myelin formation.
Sources of copper are? liver, oysters, crabmeat, nuts, cereals, and legumes. - copper
Iodine is concentrated in? the thyroid gland. - Iodine
Functions of iodine are? to synthesize thyroid hormones. -iodine
Sources of iodine are iodized table salt.
An excess of iodine produces______and a deficiency produces________? decreased synthesis of thyroid hormones and a deficiency produces goiter
Cobalt is___________distributed? widely distributed - cobalt
Functions of cobalt are? to synthesize several enzymes. - cobalt
Sources of cobalt are? liver, meats, and milk - cobalt
An excess of cobalt produces__________and a deficiency produces__________? heart disease and a deficiency produces pernicious anemia.
Zinc is distributed? liver, kidneys, and the brain. - zinc
Functions of zinc are? to synthesize several enzymes - zinc
Sources of zinc are? meats, cereals, legumes, nuts, and vegetables - zinc
An excess of zinc produces____________and a deficiency produces_________? slurred speech and problems walking and a deficiency produces depressed immunity, loss of taste and smell, and learning difficulties.
Fluorine is distributed? teeth and bones. - flourine
Functions of fluorine are? to serve as structural materials for teeth
Sources of fluorine are? fluoridated water
An excess of fluorine produces? mottled teeth.
Selenium is distributed in liver and kidneys - selenium
Functions of selenium are? to promote formation of various enzymes. - selenium
Sources of selenium are? meats, fish, and cereals. - selenium
An excess of selenium produces? vomiting and fatigue
Chromium is distributed widely. - chromium
Functions of chromium are? to promote metabolism of carbohydrates. - chromium
Sources of chromium are? liver, meats, and wine. - chromium
An adequate diet provides? sufficient energy, essential fatty acids, essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals to support optimal growth and to maintain and repair body tissues.
It is not possible to design one diet for everyone because? individual nutrient requirements vary greatly with age, sex, growth rate, amount of physical activity, and level of stress, as well as with genetic and environmental factors.
RDA stands for? United States Recommended Daily Allowance
RDA values are set ______ because __________? high because this ensures that most people who follow them are receiving sufficient amounts of each nutrient.
Malnutrition is ___ that results from______? poor nutrition that results from a lack of essential nutrients or a failure to utilize them.
Undernutrition is__________and overnutrition is_________? an inadequate intake of nutrients and overnutrition is excess nutrient intake.
Primary malnutrition is? malnutrition from diet alone.
Secondary malnutrition is? when an individual’s characteristics make a normally adequate diet insufficient
A healthy person can stay alive for_______without food? 50 to 70 days without food.
Starvation is seen in? hunger strikes, in prisoners of concentration camps, and in sufferers of psychological eating disorders.
After one day without eating, the body's? reserves of sugar and starch are gone.
By the third day of starvation? hunger ceases as the body uses energy from fat reserves.
Gradually during starvation, metabolism______, blood pressure, ______, the pulse_______, and______set in? slows to conserve energy, blood pressure drops, the pulse slows, and chills set in.
Eventually skin becomes dry and hair falls out because? because the proteins in these structures are broken down to release amino acids that are used for more vital functions in the body.
Near the end of starvation, the human is? blind, deaf, and emaciated.
Marasmus is? a lack of nutrients
Children under the age of two with marasmus often die of_______ because________? measles and other infections because their immune systems are very weak
Kwashiorkor is characterized by_________and develops when_________? protruding bellies and develops when a child has recently been weaned from breast milk.
Ascites is? the swelling of a child’s belly due to a lack of plasma proteins.
Anorexia nervosa is? self-imposed starvation.
Anorexia nervosa is most common in? adolescent females from affluent families.
Treatments of anorexia nervosa are? intravenous feedings and therapy.
Bulimia is a condition in which? a person binges and purges food.
A dentist is sometimes the first to spot a person with bulimia because? eeth often decay from frequent vomiting.
Throughout life, dietary requirements_____but the ability to_________? generally remain the same but the ability to acquire those nutrients may change drastically.
Changing nutrition with age often reflects? effects of medical conditions and social and economic circumstances
Medical conditions that affect the ability to obtain adequate nutrition are? depression, tooth decay, periodontal disease, diabetes mellitus, lactose intolerance, and alcoholism.
The BMR rises ______and declines_______? to about age 5 and declines until adolescence, when it peaks again.
The area of the stomach that acts as a temporary storage area for ingested food is the? fundic region: The fundus of an organ is the region that expands the greatest; in the stomach it is the superior portion; the pylorus region will join the duodenum.
When a bolus of food reaches the end of the esophagus, the lower esophageal sphincter relaxes in response to? arrival of peristaltic waves: Peristaltic wave-like contractions override other controls; this allows food to enter the stomach.
Why does protien digestion not begin in the mouth? because saliva only has enzymes capable of dissolving carbohydrates
Most of the digestion takes place in the small intestine: where The majority of the digestion and absorption occurs
During swallowing, muscles draw the soft palate and uvula upward to? prevent food or fluid from entering the nasal cavity
The major change to food that occurs in the mouth is? mechanically reducing the size of solid particles: Although there is some digestion of carbohydrates from the saliva, the major oral activity is physical breakdown.
The layer of the wall of the alimentary canal which keeps the outer surface of the alimentary canal moist and slippery is the? serosa: a moist membrane that prevents intestinal adhesions
The vessels that nourish the tissues of the alimentary canal and carry away absorbed materials are found in the? submucosa: The second layer or submucosa contains the majority of blood vessels.
The function of the projections of the mucosa of the GI tract is to? enlarge the area available for absorption: The projections such as villi increase the effective surface area for secretion and absorption.
The chief cells of the gastric glands secrete? digestive enzymes: The chief cells secrete pepsinogen which will become the enzyme pepsin
The digestive enzyme pepsin, secreted, begins the digestion of protein: Pepsin is only effective in digesting proteins.
Complete proteins contain: tain all the essential amino acids: Complete proteins contain the essential amino acids, we can make the others.
why is Cholecystokinin is secreted by the small intestine? response to the presence of proteins and fats.
Pancreatic duct and the bile duct, joins the alimentary canal at the? duodenum: The common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the duodenum.
Which enzyme is present in both the mouth and pancreas? amylase: a carbohydrate enzyme found in saliva and the pancreas.
Hepatitis A is transmitted by? ingestion of food contaminated by feces
The function of the gallbladder is to? store and release bile: The only function of the gallbladder is to store and release the bile made by the liver.
the function of bile is? emulsification of fats: Bile contains salts that physically emulsify fats.
The velvety appearance of the lining of the small intestine is due to the presence of? villi: small projections that give the intestines their smooth velvet appearance; they increase surface area
Sucrase and maltase are enzymes important in breaking down? disaccharides: Sucrase and maltase split disaccharides into monosaccharides.
What nutrients are absorbed by the lacteals of the villi of the small intestine? fats: Lacteals are lymphatic vessels that absorb fats.
What nutrients is not absorbed by the intestines? Cellulose: an extremely large, indigestible polysaccharide which is not absorbable by the human intestines
The carbohydrate form most commonly oxidized by cells as fuel is? glucose: The molecule preferred for energy metabolism is glucose.
What Prevents spread of infection in the abdominal cavity? greater omentum: adheres to inflamed areas between loops of large and small intestine, preventing the spread of infection
What motion does Segnentation produce? a back-and-forth movement that mixes chyme with digestive juices in the small intestine.
Which cells produce HCL? Parietal cells produce and secrete hydrochloric acid.
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