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What is the difference between variations within a species and variation within a species? Variation within a species is the differences between organisms of the same species and variation among a species is organisms that have similar characteristics but are different species
What is the difference between a species and speciation? A species is a group of organisms that share similar genetic and physical characteristics and speciation is the evolution of different animals from a single ancestor
What is the difference between structural and behavioural adaptations? Behavioural adaptations are inherited characteristics that help an organism survive in its environment and a structural adaptation is an inherited physical characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment
What is the diversity index? a measure of biological diversity in an area
what is the definition of environment? the area or conditions in which an organism lives
What is competition? The struggle among organisms for limited resources, such as food or territory
what is a niche? The role or characteristic activity that is undertaken by an organism in an ecosystem; an organism may have more than one niche
what is the difference between a broad and narrow niche? a narrow niche is a highly characterized or specialized role an organism has in an ecosystem and a broad niche is a role or activity filled by a generalist organism
what is the difference between a generalist and specialist organism? a specialist is a type of organism that is adapted to a very specific environment and has a narrow niche. a generalist is a type of organism with generalized requirements an adaptations that allow it to survive in variable conditions
what is a symbiotic relationship? an interaction between organisms of different species living close together that lasts over time
what is mutualism? a symbiotic relationship between two different organisms that benefits both organisms
what is commensalism? a symbiotic relationship between two different organism that benefits one organism and doesn't affect the other
what is parasitism? a symbiotic relationship between two different organism that benefits one organism and harms the other
what is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction? asexual is the formation of a new individual from a single organism and sexual reproduction involves 2 sexes or mating types and results in off spring with genes from both parents
what are genes? a section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific protein and function
what is the difference between discrete and continuos variation? discrete variation in genetics are inherited traits that have a limited humber of variation (ability to roll tongue) and continuous variation are traits that show range of possibilities (eye colour, hair colour)
What is the difference between a dominant and recessive trait? a dominant trait is an inherited trait that shows up in off spring while a recessive trait that only shows up in the offspring if both parents have it (when mixed with a dominant trait, the dominant will always over rule)
what are mutations? the change in the genetic information, or DNA, of an organism
what is DNA? Standing for deoxyribonucleic acid, it is a molecule that stores genetic information for heritable traits and directs the structure and function of cells
what are chromosomes? tightly packed strands of DNA in a cell
what is meiosis? the process by which genetic material is duplicated and divided so that each gamete has half the number of chromosomes of the somatic cell (sex cells)
what is mitosis? the process by which genetic material is duplicated and divided so that the two new cells have identical sets of chromosomes (normal cell)
what is artificial selection or selective breeding? when 2 different plants or animals with desirable traits are bred together to develop organisms with specific traits
what is natural selection? a naturally occurring process by which the organisms with the best traits for survival live to reproduce
what is the difference between extinction and extirpation? extinction is the entire termination of a species, but extirpation is the extinction of a special from a specific geographic area
what is a bioindicator species? they are species that help indicate environmental change
what are some ways that species are being preserved? zoos, seed banks and global treaties
what does WHMIS stand for? Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System
what is a caustic substance? an agent that burns or destroys living tissue
what does corrosive mean? materials that cause severe eye and skin irritation and can cause severe tissue damage over time
what does flammable mean? materials that easily catch fire
what is the difference between physical and chemical change? physical change is the change is appearance or state of a substance and doesn't change the composition. chemical change is change in chemical properties where new substances are formed because the original substances were used up
what are physical properties? colour, melting point, hardness, solubility, lustre, boiling point, density, conductivity (electricity), malleability (hold shape) and ductility (strength) ALL ARE MEASURED QUALITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY
what are chemical properties? reactiveness with acid, ability to burn, reactiveness with water, behaviour in air, reactiveness with heat ALL MEASURED BEHAVIOURALLY
On the periodic square, what is the orange part? The element name
what is the green part? the automatic number
what is the blue part? the element symbol
what is the purple part? the atomic mass
how do you determine the number of electrons and protons in the element? the atomic number will give the number
how do you figure our the number of neutrons in an element? you subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass
what is a way to determine if an element is a metal or not? atoms of metals have fewer that 4 outer-ring electrons and atoms of non-metals have more than 4 outer-ring electrons
what is the difference between an ionic and molecular compound? ionic compounds are formed with atoms transfer electrons to or from other atoms while molecular compounds are formed when atoms share electrons
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis? carbon dioxide + water + energy from the sun = glucose + oxygen
what is the chemical formula for respiration? glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + chemical energy
what is the chemical formula for combustion? hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + lots of heat energy
what is the chemical formula for corrosion? iron + oxygen + iron oxide + water
what is the difference between an exothermic and endothermic chemical reaction? an exothermic reaction released heat energy while an endothermic reaction uses up heat energy
what are organic nutrients? carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and vitamins
name 3 elements used in plants and humans iron, calcium and magnesium
what are fertilizers? solutions that aid the growth of plants
what is a pesticide and what are the 3 types and what are they used for? pesticides are chemicals used to control pests. the 3 types are herbicides (plants), insecticides (bugs) and fungicides (fungus)
what is the story behind DDT? DDT was an insecticide used to kill disease carrying bugs during WWII but showed very harmful side affects to other organisms too over time. its use has been banned
what is the difference between an acid and a base? what colour do they turn pH paper? acids are chemicals that have a pH value of less than 7 and turn pH paper red. bases are chemicals with pH values of above 7 and turn pH paper blue
what is an indicator? a chemical that changes colour to indicate whether a substance is an acid or a base
what is the pH scale? a scale that measures how acidic or alkaline a substance is
what is the difference between a poison and a toxin? a poison is a chemical in food that causes IMMEDIATE illness or death. a toxin is a chemical with the potential to cause harm to an organism
how can tell the quality of water? excessive amounts of nitrates and phosphates, which indicate the large production and decomposition of plants and organic matter in water
is dissolved oxygen a good sign in water? yes because most pollutants decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in water
what is an LD50? LD50 is the dose of a chemical that will kill 50% of the population it was given too
what is the difference between acute and chronic toxicity? acute is when a toxin causes harm with just one exposure and chronic is when a toxin causes harm through many exposures over time
what is the nitrogen cycle? the way that nitrogen changes into many different forms that are used by living organisms
what are scrubbers? what are sorbets? scrubbers are devices that reduce oxide emissions, and they use sorbents which are chemicals that absorb the oxides
what are the 3 steps in a sewage treatment system? 1. Primary: is the physical separation of solids and sediments 2. Secondary: most of the organism compounds are removed by bacterial decomposition 3. Tertiary: remaining water goes to a marsh where phosphates and nitrates are removed
what is an aquifer? an underground collection of water
what does biodegradable mean? able to be broken down by bacteria and other organisms into carbon dioxide and water
what is the difference between a secure and sanitary land fill a sanitary landfill has a waterproof liner that is filled with garbage covered by the Earth. a secure landfill is just a special landfill that safely disposes of hazardous and toxic waste
what are the 4 R's reduce, reuse, recycle and recover
what is bioremediation? when organisms are used to make toxic substances break down into non toxic substances
What are charges? the excess electrons or protons in an object
what are unbalanced charges (static electricity)? a charge produced by rubbing or touching objects together
what are the 3 laws of charges? 1. Unlike charges attract 2. Like charges repel 3. Charged objects attract non-charged objets
what are conductors? materials that allow charges to move freely through them
what are insulators? any material where the charge stays in the spot where it was touched; it won't move through
what are superconductors ? materials that offer little or no resistance to the flow of charges
(ON THE SYMBOL SHEET) what is the red line? what does it do? its a conductor, it conducts electricity through a circuit
what is the orange line? which bar is the + side? its a cell and it stores electricity. the long bar is the + side
what is the yellow line? it is a batter which is just a combination of cells
what is the light green line? a lamp, and it converts electricity into light
what it the dark green line? a resistor, and it controls the amount of current in the circuit
what is the teal line? a switch, and it opens and closes the circuit, controlling the flow of electricity
what is the blue line? a motor, and it converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
what is potential difference? the difference of electrical potential between two points.
what is current? the amount of charge that passes a point in a conducting wire every second
what is the difference between a series and parallel circuit? a parallel circuit has several circuit paths while a series circuit has only one circuit path. parallel circuits can distribute current evenly while series circuits wear down the strength over many loads in a circuit
what unit measures electrical current flow? ampere
what is the piezoelectric? sound produced when electric current causes vibrations in a tiny crystal
what are photovoltaic cells? a device used to to produce electricity from light (solar)
what is LED? Light emitting diode, that are used in more modern light bulbs and light up when an electric current flows through them. they use a fraction of the power traditional bulbs use
what are thermocouples? a loop of two wires made of different types of metas that converts heat to energy
what is an electromagnet? a strong temporary magnet, created by inserting a soft iron ore into a coil of wire and then passing a current through the wire
what is an electrical generator? a device that converts mechanical energy into electric energy. electric energy is produced by a coil of wire rotating inside a magnet
what is a motor? a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy. it works by having a cylinder filled with electromagnets spin within two opposite magnetic fields. the attraction and repulsion creates electric energy into mechanical energy
what is the difference between alternating current and direct current? alternation current is electricity produced in a generator where the current flowing from the generator changes direction regularly. direct current is an electric current that flows in one direction only
how are meter dials read? how is the cost determined? you read the dials depending on where the needle is pointing. if its pointing between 2 numbers, you record the lowest number. when you collect the 2 number from the 2 rows, you subtract the digits and the difference is how much the person is charged
what is electrical efficiency? the ratio of energy provided by a machine with the actual energy given to the machine
how is energy created from fossil fuels? when the fossil fuels are burned, the heat causes water to create steam which turns steam turbines, the turbines power a generator and electrical power is the result
How is energy created from water? waster rushing through a dam turns a turbine, which powers a generator and electrical power is created
how electric energy created from atomic (nuclear) reactions? when a nuclear reaction takes place, most energy is conserved but some is released as kinetic energy
what is thermal pollution? an occurrence when warm water is returned to lakes or river from where it is taken, increasing the water temperature and messing with the aquatic ecosystem
what is a cogenerator system? electricity generating stations that produce electricity and also supply thermal energy
list 3 alternative energy sources wind energy, water and geothermic
what is a frame of reference? a set of axes that describe the position of moving things
what is azimuth and altitude? altitude is the angle measured above the horizon in degrees when measuring altitude-azimuth co-ordinates. azimuth is the ante measured clockwise from north when measuring altitude-azimuth co-ordinates
what is the difference between a geocentric and heliocentric system? a GC system is a model of the universe that places Earth at the centre with the sun, moon and planets revolving around it. HC system is a model of the universe that places the sun at the centre with earth, the planets and moons revolving around it
what is the difference between a reflecting a refracting telescope? a reflecting telescope has a mirror for its objective, which just reflects the image to magnify. a refracting telescope has a lens for its objective, which just refracts the image to magnify it
what is focal length? the distance between the center of a lens or curved mirror and its focus
what are spectral lines? dark lines present in a spectrum that indicate its composition (stars, planets etc)
what is the difference between red shift and blue shift with starts? blue shift indicates that a star is moving towards you because its wavelength becomes compressed. red shifted starts indicate it is moving away from you and its wavelength spreads out
what is the doppler effect? when an object is moving, its sound waves are compressed and sound higher as it is moving toward you and when it passes you its wavelengths are spread out and make a lower pitch sound
how does combining telescopes increase the quality of image and enlargement? when 2 telescopes are combined, they create a telescope as powerful as the distance between the 2
what is adaptive optics? a technology that adjusts the mirror or image of a telescope to get rid of effects Earths atmosphere gives
what is triangulation? a method of measuring distance indirectly by creating an imaginary triangle between an observer and an object who distance is estimated
what are the 7 types of electromagnetic radiation? Radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma
what is radio astronomy? using radio waves to learn about the composition of stars
what is interferometry? what is VLBI? when 2 telescope combine their image. VLBI stands for Very Long Baseline Interferometry, which just combines the image of 2 telescope from anywhere in the world
on the rocket diagram, what is the pink part? the pay load, which is the device or material the rocket carries
what is the blue part? the stage, which is one part of a staged rocket
what is the green part? the rocket tube, which contains combustable material
what is the yellow part? the fins, which help the rocket fly straight
what is gravitational assist? when the gravity of a planet pulls a rocket into motion
what is CCD? Charge coupled devices, which are machines that convert light signals into electric signals digitally
what is the purpose of satellites? they are devices that are used to learn more about space and take pictures of the universe
what is GPS? a technology that allows you to know your direct location on earth using GPS satellites and hand held devices
what is the ISS? The international space station is a habitable satellite that involves 16 nations and helps astronauts about space
what is parallax the apparent difference in position of an object that is viewed from 2 different spots
Created by: XioJohnson