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68C Exam 5

Cardiovascular, blood, lymphatic system, vital signs

Clumping of blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and antigen Agglutination
Nongranular leukocyte Agranulocyte
Plasma protien that helps regulate osmotic concentration of blood Albumin
Small organic compound that contains an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); structural unit of a protein molecule Amino Acid
Chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies Antigen
White blood cell containing cytoplasmic granules that stain with basic dye Basophil
Fluid secreted by liver and stored in gallbladder Bile
Bile pigment produced from hemoglobim breakdown Biliverdin
Microscopic droplet of fat in the blood following fat digestion Chylomicron
Blood clotting Coagulation
Hemoglobin to which oxygen is not bound Deoxyhemoglobin
Squeezing of leukocytes between cells of blood vessel walls Diapedesis
Fluid accumulation within tissue spaces Edema
Condition when the quantities of electrolytes entering the body equal those leaving it Electrolyte Balance
A blood clot or gas bubble that obstructs a blood vessel Embolus
White blood cell containing cytoplasmic granules that stain with acidic dye Eosinophil
Immature red blood cells Erythroblast
Red Blood Cell Erythrocyte
Insoluble, fibrous protien formed from fibrinogen during blood coagulation Fibrin
Plasma Protein converted into fibrin durin blood coagulation Fibrinogen
Protein portion of a hemoglobin Molecule Globin
Type of protein in the blood Globulin
Leukocyte with granules in its cytoplasm Granulocyte
Volume percentage of red blood cells within a sample of whole blood Hematocrit
Iron-containing portion of hemoglobin Heme
Cell that gives rise to blood cells Hemocytoblast
Stoppage of bleedin Hemostasis
Resistance to effects of specific disease-causing agents Immunity
Complex of lipid and protein Lipoprtein
Type of white blood cell that provides immunity; B cell or T cell Lymphocyte
Large bone marrow cell that gives rise to blood platelets Megekaryocyte
Type of white blood cell that is a phagocyte Monocyte
Type of Phagocytic leukocyte Neutrophil
Substance, such as urea or uric acid, that contains nitrogen but is not a protein Nonprotein nitrogenous substance
Compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin Oxyhemoglobin
Antibody-producing cell that forms when activated B cells proliferate Plasma Cell
Proteins dissolved in blood plasma Plasma Protein
Process by which changes cause additional similar changes, producing unstable conditions Positive Feedback
Plasma protein that leads to formation of blood cells Prothrombin
Fluid portion of coagulated blood Serum
Blood clot that remains at its formation site in blood vessel Thrombus
Bile Pigment produced from hemoglobin breakdown Bilirubin
What are the formed elements of blood? red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
This is not a formed element of blood? Plasma: The formed elements include the cells and platelets only.
The structure of red blood cells is that of? biconcave discs with no nucleus that increases surface area, Because the mature RBC has lost its nucleus, the center becomes a biconcave disc.
This condition would result in a low hematocrit? severe bleeding, The loss of red blood cells will cause the hematocrit to drop.
Damaged red blood cells are destroyed by cells called? Macrophages are phagocytic monocytes
The heme portion of damaged red blood cells is decomposed first into iron and_______? biliverdin: The liver converts heme into biliverdin, then bilirubin.
Erythropoietin is released by the kidney in direct response to? a decrease in oxygen concentration in the blood: it is secreted whenever the oxygen level in the blood falls below the normal ranges.
In an adult, red blood cells are produced in? Red blood cells are produced mainly by the red marrow in the flat bones in an adult; in the fetus, the spleen and liver also produced red cells.
The production of red blood cells is dependent on adequate intake of? iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12: Although many factors are required for RBC synthesis, iron, folic acid and B12 are the most essential.
These Cells, ________ and _________ are not a granulocyte because? Lymphocytes and monocytes are agranulocytes.
The most numerous white blood cell is the? neutrophils are the most common
The white blood cell that forms antibodies necessary for immunity to specific diseases is the? lymphocyte: Specifically the B-lymphocyte produces antibodies to foreign agents; basophils secrete substances such as heparin.
The white cell that would increase in certain parasitic infections and allergic reactions is? Eosinophils respond to allergies and parasitic infections.
The most mobile and phagocytic white cells are? Neutrophils and monocytes may leave the blood in search of infectious or other harmful substances
______ arise from marrow cells called megakaryocytes? Platelets: small cell fragments that do not containa nucleus.
A form of cancer characterized by uncontrolled production of white blood cells is? leukemia: The most common cancer of leukocytes
The plasma protein produced by lymphatic tissues is? gamma globulin: made in the B-lymphocytes
Most nutrients found in the plasma were primarily absorbed from the? The small intestine is the organ of most active absorption
A platelet plug begins to form when platelets are? exposed to a rough surface: Platelets adhere to the exposed collagen under the lining of a blood vessel and to each other to form the platelet plug.
Nutrients Transported by the blood Amino Acids, Simple Sugars, Lipid, Vitamins, Iron
Electrolytes Transported by the blood Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride
Wastes Transported by the blood Carbon Dioxide, Urea, Uric Acid
Plasma is composed of how much water? 91 Percent
________ attaches to _______ a component of the erthrocyte, in the lungs. Oxygen, heme
Blood acts in the regulation of most body functions by? Transporting Hormones
Blood Distributes heat by? Moving warm blood to the surface
Blood Protects against disease by? Transporting a wide variety of cells
Blood Plugs damaged vessels by? Provides biochemical's and cells that form necessary clots
Amount of RBC's in 1ml of blood 5 million
Amount of WBC's in 1ml of blood 10,000
Amount of Platelets in 1ml of blood 300,000
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) shaped as ______ to __________? Biconcave disks, to, increases the surface
Hemoglobin is; ? The oxygen-carrying portion. Approximately one-third of the RBC volume. Bright-red when bound with oxygen.
ABO Blood Groups a system of grouping blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens
Albumin small plasma proteins synthesized in the liver that are the primary components of osmotic pressure in the bloodstream
Agglutination the clumping of red blood cells surface following a transfusion reaction
Antibodies soluble, globular proteins that directly attack antigens, activate complement, or stimulate changes that prevent the spread of pathogens.
Antigens a chemical compound attached to a cell surface which, if not recognized by the lymphatic system, elicits an immune response
Coagulation an effective hemostatic mechanism that causes blood clots through the use of clotting factors
Colloid Osmotic Pressure the pressure resulting from water moving toward an area of a higher concentration of a solute.
Embolus a dislodged blood clot that is moving through the blood vessels.
Erythrocytes biconcave disks, also known as red blood cells, used to transport gases.
Erythropoietin a hormone that is secreted by the kidney and liver to control rate of erythrocyte production.
Fibrin insoluble threads of protein that form a meshwork at sites of injury that entrap blood cells and platelets forming blood clots.
Fibrinogen a large protein synthesized in the liver that functions in blood coagulation
Globulin three types of proteins synthesized in the liver and lymphatic tissue and are important in the transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and immunity
Hematocrit the percentage of formed elements in a volume of whole blood.
Hemoglobin oxygen carrying portion of the erythrocyte
Hemostasis the processes responsible for stopping blood loss when a blood vessel is damaged.
Leukocytes five types of cells, also known as white blood cells, that protect against disease
Lipoprotein proteins that combine with lipids to allow transport of lipids through the bloodstream.
Plasma clear, straw-colored liquid portion of whole blood which contains a complex mixture of chemicals.
Chemicals in Plasma Water, Amino acids, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Vitamins, Hormones, Electrolytes, Cellular wastes
Rh Blood Group a system of grouping blood based on the presence of the Rh antigen
Thrombocytes cell fragments, as known as platelets that close breaks in damaged blood vessels and initiate the formation of blood clots.
Thrombopoietin a hormone responsible for the initiation the formation of thrombocytes.
Thrombus a blood clot that abnormally forms in a blood vessel.
Whole Blood the combination of all fluid and components in the blood
Carbaminohemoglobin hemoglobin rich In C02
Oxyhemoglobin hemoglobin rich in 02
Deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin that is 02 depleted
Erythrocytes are controlled by? utilizing a negative feedback
Anemia characterized by? Too few erythrocytes, Too few hemoglobin
Jaundice excess of bilirubin(the Break down of hemoglobin) in the bloodstream
The red blood cell has? No Nucleus
Polycythemia too many red blood cells
leukopenia too few white blood cells. A decrease <5000 per mm3. Usually the result of a disease process
Leukocytosis An increase >10,000 per mm3. May indicate an acute infection
DIFF differential white blood cell count
Which white blood cells help protect the body from parasites? Eosinophils attack foreign organisms
Platelets (thrombocytes) Incomplete cells or portions of cells, Clump together at the site of hemorrhage
3 Plasma Proteins Albumin, Globulin, Fibrinogen
Plasma is ________ Percent of total Blood Volume? 55%
Make up of Plasma 91% H20 7% Blood Proteins (Fibrinogen, albumin, globulin) 2% Nutrients, Hormones, Electrolytes
Cellular Components are _______ Percent of total Blood Volume? 45%
Buffy Coat White Blood Cells and Platelets separated in a blood sample
Accounts for 60% of proteins? the Smallest Protein, Albumins which are determinant of Osmotic pressure
Alpha and Beta Globulins Synthesized in the liver. Transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
Gamma Globulins Produced in the lymphatic tissues. Type of antibody
Functional Blood Gasses Oxygen and Carbon dioxide
Nonfunctional Blood Gasses Nitrogen
Blood Type A Antigen A present
Blood Type B Antigen B present
Blood Type AB Antigen A and B present
Blood Type O No antigen present
Universal recipient Blood Type AB+
Universal donor Blood Type O-
Antigen D present Rh positive
Antigen D absent Rh negative
Air sac of a lung: a sac like structure Alveolus
Major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricles Aorta
Swelling in the aortic wall, behind each cusp of the semilunar valve, that contains baroteceptors Aortic Sinus
Flaplike structures in the wall of the aorta near its origin that prevent blood from returning to the left ventricle Aortic Valve
An irregular heart beat Arrhythmia
A small branch of an artery that communicates with a capillary network Arteriole
Vessel that transports blood from the heart Artery
Specialized mass of cardiac muscl fibers in the interatrial septum of the heart: transmits cardiac impulses from the sinoatrial node to the AV bundle; AV node Atrioventricular Node
Upper Chambers of the heart Atria
Earlike structures; the parts of the heart that form the walls of the atria Auricles
Sensory receptor in the blood vessel wall stimulated by changes in pressure (pressoreceptor) Baroreceptor
A small blood vesse that connects an arteriole and a venule Capillaries
system of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that connect cardiac impulses from the SA node into the myocardium Cardiac Conduction System
The volume of blood per minute that the heart pumps [Stroke Volume(ml) x Heart Rate(bpm)] Cardiac Output
An Artery that supplies blood to the wall of the heart Coronary Artery
Large Vessel on the posterior surface of the heart into which the cardiac veins drain Coronary Sinus
Pertaining to the the elbow Cubital
Lowest arterial blood pressure during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle Diastolic Pressure
Electrocardiogram ECG
Recording of the electrical activity associated with the heratbeat; ECG or EKG Electrocardiogram
Inner lining of the heart chambers endocardium
Layer of epithelial cells that form the inner lining of blood vessels and heart chambers Endothelium
Merging cells performing as a unit; those of the heart are joined electrically. A syncytium lacks cell boundries, appearing as a multinucleated structure functional syncytium
Pertaining to the liver Hepatic
Breathing in; inhalation Inspiration
Large, fixed phagocyte in the liver that removes bacterial cells from the blood Kupffer Cell
Pertaining to the tongue Lingual
Muscle tissue of the heart Myocardium
Mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat; the sinoatrial node Pacemaker
Muscles that extend inward from the ventricular walls of the heart and to which the chordae tendineae attach Papillary Muscle
Serous Membrane that surrounds the heart Pericardium
Resistance to blood flow due to friction between blood vessel walls Peripheral Resistance
System of blood vessels that carries blood between the heart and the lungs Pulmonary Circuit
Surge of blood felt through the walls of arteries due to the contraction of the heart ventricles Pulse
Specialized muscle fibers that conduct the cardiac impulses from the AV bundle into the ventricular walls Purkinje Fibers
Pertaining to the kidney Renal
Sinoatrial node SA Node
Specialized tissue in the wall of the right atrium that initiates cardiac cycles; the pacemaker; SA Node Sinoatrial node
Volume of blood the ventricle discharges with each heartbeat Stroke Volume
Vessels that conduct blood between the heart and all body tissues except the lings Systemic circuit
Phase of the ardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall contracts Systole
Arterial blood pressure reached during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle Systolic Pressure
Heart Valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle Tricuspid Valve
Vessel that carries blood toward the heart Vein
One of two large veins that convey deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart Vena Cava
Vessel that carries blood from capillaries to a vein Venule
Tendency for a fluid to resist flowing due to the internal friction of its molecules Viscosity
Aorta The major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricle.
Arteriole A small branch of an artery that communicates with a capillary network
Artery Thick-walled elastic vessels that always carry blood away from the heart.
Atrium: Chamber of the heart that receives blood.
Capillary A small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule.
Cardiac cycle A series of myocardial contractions and relaxations that constitute a complete heartbeat
Cardiac output A series of myocardial contractions and relaxations that constitute a complete heartbeat
Diastole Phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall relaxes.
Electrical event The electrical conduction of the heart as visualized on the EKG
Endocardium Inner lining of the heart chambers.
Epicardium The visceral portion of the pericardium on the surface of the heart
Ischemia Deficiency of blood in a body part.
Mechanical Event The muscular contraction of the heart that sends blood out of the heart.
Mitral valve Heart valve between left atrium and left ventricle also known as the bicuspid valve.
Myocardium Muscle tissue of the heart
Myocardial Infarction A MI is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia
Pacemaker Mass of specialized muscle tissue that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat.
Stroke volume The volume of blood that each ventricle discharges in a heartbeat
Systole The phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall contracts
Systemic circulation Involves movement of blood from the left ventricle throughout the body and back. to the right atrium.
Vasoconstriction A decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel.
Vasodilation An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel
Vein A vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
Vena Cava The large vein that conveys deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.
Ventricle Chamber of the heart that contracts to send blood the lungs and body
An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel Vasodilation
A Decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel Vasoconstriction
Masses of chemoreceptors located in the wall of the internal carotid artery near the carotid sinus Carotid Bodies
Phase of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber wall relaxes Diastole
Vascular Channel within the liver Hepatic Sinusoid
Elevated Blood Pressure Hypertension
Resistance to the blood flow due to friction between the blood and the walls of the blood vessels Peripheral Resisitance
A low concentration of blood potassium Hypokalemia
Cardiac valve located between an atrium and a ventricle Atrioventricular Valve
Blood Vessels that return blood from the venules of the myocardium to the coronary sinus Cardiac Veins
Heart Valve located between that left atrium and the left ventricle; mitral valve Bicuspid Valve
An arterial ring located on the ventral surface of the brain Circle of Willis
Elevated concentration of blood potassium Hyperkalemia
Heart valve located between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve Mitral Valve
Course blood follows as it flows from the heart to body cells Arterial Pathway
Valve Leading from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk (artery); pulmonary semilunar valve Pulmonary Valve
Merging cells performing together as a unit; those of the heart are joined electrically. A Syncytium lacks cell boundries appearing as a multinucleated structure Functional Syncytium
Two closed pathways of the cardiovascular system Pulmonary circuit, Systemic Circuit
Function of the Cardiovascular System Supplies oxygen and nutrients and removes wastes from them
Structure of the heart Hollow, cone shaped
Base of the Heart superior portion or top of the Heart
Average size of an adult heart 14cm long and 9 cm wide
Position of the Heart Bordered laterally by the lungs, posteriorly by the vertebrae and anteriorly by the sternum
Lies on the diaprhagm, At the 5th intercostal space, Apical pulse auscultated here Apex: bottom of the heart
Proximal portion of the heart, Attaches to the great vessels Base: top of the heart
Two layered: fibrous Inner layer: visceral pericardium or epicardium: Outer layer:parietal pericardium The Pericaridum (covering sac):
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium The Wall of the Heart (3 distinct layers)
Pericarditis swelling and irritation of the pericardium, often causes chest pain and sometimes other symptoms. The sharp chest pain occurs when the irritated layers of the pericardium rub against each other.
Pericardial space
Two upper Chambers of the heart structure and function Thin walled, Receive blood returning to heart (Atria)
Two Lower chambers of the heart function Eject (“pump”) blood into circulation (ventricles)
Atrioventricular Valves Tricuspid and Bicuspid
Chordae tendineae
Papillary muscle Muscle that extends inward from the ventricular walls of the heart and to which the chordae tendineae
Semilunar (Pulmonary, Aortic) located at the base of both the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, the two arteries receiving blood out of the ventricles. They permit blood to be forced into the arteries, preventing backflow from the arteries into the ventricles. They do not have chordae t
What Causes the dum sound of the hearts lub-dum cycle? Closure of the semilunar valves causes the second heart sound.
Path of Deoxyginated Blood through the Heart Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart (Inferior and Superior vena cava) > Right atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right ventricle > Pulmonary Semilunar valve > Pulmonary Artery
Arteries and veins are catagorized by what? Flow of the blood, towards or away from the heart.
Abnormal heart action characterized by a loss of rhythm Aarhythmia
Phase of the cardiac cycle during which a heart chamber wall contracts Systole
Arterial blood pressure during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle Systolic Pressure
An abnormally rapid heart beat Tachycardia
Pertaining to blood vessels Vascular
A group of fibers that conduct cardiac impulses from the AV Node to the Purkinje Fibers; Bundle of HIS AV Bundle
A small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule Capillary
Pertaining to the eye Ophthalmic
Why is Vitamin K important? It is neccessary for blood clotting
Hepatic Portal Circulation? Veins that drain the abdominal viscera carry, nutrient rich blood through the hepatic portal vein to the liver
Functions of the Liver Regulates glucose concentration, Regulates amino acids, Stores vitamins, Detoxifies harmful substances
A groove on the surface of the heart that marks the division between an atriu, and a ventricle Atrioventricular Sulcus
A group of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricular muscle of the the heart; AV Bundle Atrioventricular Bundle
Opening between the atrium and the ventricle on one side of the heart Atrioventricular Orifice
An abnormally slow heart rate or pulse rate Bradycardia
open to passage or penetration Permeable
Condition in which the walls of arteries thicken and lose their elsasticity: Hardening of the arteries Arteriosclerosis
Instrument used for measuring blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
The vessels that conduct blood between the heart and all body tissues except the lungs Systemic Circuit
A series of myocardial contractions that constitutes a complete heartbeat Cardiac Cycle
A deficiency of blood in a body part Ischemia
Abnormally swollen and enlarged veins, especially in the legs Varicose Veins
A union of nerve fibers or blood vessels to form a network Anastomosis
External cardiac defibrillators are used for? sudden cardiac arrest: Defibrillation attempts to restart the heart
The visceral pericardium is also known as the? The epicardium is the same as the adult visceral pericardium
The uppermost or most superior part of the heart is the? The base is the flat upper part of the heart; the apex is the inferior part.
The thickest layer of the wall of the heart is the? The myocardium or muscle is the thickest layer; the endocardium is the thin inner layer.
Purkinje fibers are located in the? are located within the interventricular septum and ventricular myocardium.
The tricuspid valve is located? between the right atrium and right ventricle
The right atrium receives blood from the? inferior and superior venae cavae, which return systemic blood to the right atrium.
The valve between the chambers of the left side of the heart is the? mitral (bicuspid valve)
Cardiac pain is due to? interruption of blood supply to cardiac muscle
insufficient oxygen supply to cardiac muscle results in?. Referred pain from the heart (angina pectoris)
Describes the events of the cardiac cycle? both atria contract and both ventricles relax; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax
there is a point where the atrioventricular and semilunar valves are open at the same time Reduced pressure in the left ventricle compared to the aorta will cause the blood to flow back against thevalve and close it.
The two major heart sounds are a result of? The two classic major heart sounds are caused by closure of the A-V and semilunar valves, in sequence.
A mass of merged cells that act as a unit is called? A functional syncytium is a group of cells that stimulate each other, such as the cardiac fibers.
The cells that initiate the stimulus for contraction of the heart muscle are located in the? The sinoatrial node contains the pacemaker cells.
describes the conduction pathway of cardiac impulses? SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers
The P wave on an ECG represents? atrial depolarization
Ventricular repolarization is represented by the? T wave
Concentrations of which of the following electrolytes have direct effects on the myocardium? Calcium and potassium are critically related to cardiac contractility and excitability.
The middle layer of arterial walls is composed of? smooth muscle and allows the vessel to contract; the inner layer is the endothelium.
The vessel that participates directly in the exchange of substances between body cells and the blood is the? Capillaries are the only vessels thin enough to allow for the diffusion of nutrients and wastes.
The amount of blood that flows into capillaries is regulated by The precapillary sphincter muscles directly control flow into the capillary beds.
Deposits of fatty materials on the inside of arterial walls are called? An arterial plaque is a collection of dead cells and cholesterol.
Plasma proteins help retain water in the blood by maintaining osmotic pressure: Plasma proteins such as albumin have a strong osmotic effect.
The middle layer of the walls of veins differs from arteries in that it contains less smooth muscle: Veins are thinner walled and have less smooth muscle.
Systolic pressure is the? highest pressure in the arteries which occurs during contraction of the heart
Which of the following will cause blood pressure to increase? a decrease in arteriole diameter: Vessel constriction increases peripheral resistance, which reduces blood flow. The backing up of blood into the arteries increases blood pressure.
The Frank-Starling law is related to which of the following cardiac structures? muscle fibers: The Frank Starling law relates the stretching of the heart muscle to the force of contraction.
The right and left ___________ veins merge to form the superior vena cava. brachiocephalic: The brachiocephalic veins unite to form the superior vena cava.
Which of the following vessels carries oxygenated blood? The pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
Which vessel supplies blood to the liver, stomach and spleen? The celiac artery branches from the abdominal aorta just inferior to the diaphragm and branches into the gastric, splenic, and hepatic arteries.
Tissues depend on? a functional circulatory system to supply nutrients and oxygen and to remove accumulated wastes.
Elevation of body temperature above normal Fever
A drug that suppresses the action of helper T calls, preventing rejection of transplanted tissue Cyclosporine
The cell that displays the antigen to the cells of the immune system so they can defend the body against that particular antigen Antigen-Presenting Cell
A type of protein secreted by a T-Lymphocyte that attacks viruses, virally infected cells, and cancer cells Cytokine
Ovarian cells that surround a developing egg cell and secrete female sex hormones Follicular Cells
An immune response against a person's own tissue; autoallergy Autoimmunity
The invasion and multiplication af microorganisms in the body tissues Infection
Destruction of cells bearing foreign (nonself) antigens by circulating antibodies Humoral Immunity
A biochemical that increases body temperature Pyrogen
Lymphocyte that reacts against foreign substances in the body by producing and secreting antibodies; B-Cell B-Lymphocyte
Resistance to the effects of specific disease-causing agents Immunity
A class of immune system chemicals (Cytokines) that inhibit multiplication of viruses and growth of tumors Interferon
A small molecule that, in combination with a larger one, forms and antigenic substance and can later stimulate immune reaction by itself Hapten
The immune system's response to subsequent encounters with a foreign antigen Secondary immune response
A natural ability of one type of organism to resist infection by microorganisms that might cause disease in another type of organism Species Resistance
Lymphocytes that interact directly with antigen-bearing cells and particles and secrete cytokines, producing cell-mediated immunity T-Cell
Collections of lymphatic tissue in the throat Tonsils
Globular plasma prteins that function as antibodies Immunoglobin
Transfer of granules of melanin from melanocytes into adjacent epithelial cells Cytocrine secretion
An antibody produces against oneself Autoantibody
A large, glandular organ located in the upper left region of the abdomen Spleen
A substance that contains antigens used to stimulate an immune response Vaccine
Specialized ends of antibodies that bind specific antigens Antigen binding site
A mass of lymphoid tiossue located along the course of lymphatic vessel Lymph Node
The body's attack on foreign antigens carried out by T-Lymphocytes and their secreted products Cell-Mediated Immunity
An early stage of prenatal development that consists of a hollow ball of cells Blastocyte
A group of cells that originate from a single cell and are therefore genetically identical Clone
The parts of an antibody's antigen binding site that are complementary in conformation to a particular antigen Idiotype
A foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction Allergen
A class of immune system chemicals (cytokines) with varied effects on the body Interleukin
Fluid transported by the lymphatic vessels Lymph
A small mass of tissue detected by touch Nodule
A disese-causing agent Pathogen
In the Kidneys, a straight tubule that receives fluid from several nephrons Collecting Duct
The study of disease Pathology
Substances that suppress the immune response against transplanted tissue Immunosuppressive Drugs
A group of enzymes that are activiated by the combination of antibody with antigen and enhance the reaction against foreign substances within the body Complement
A depression where vessels, nerves, and other structures (Broonchus, ureter, etc.) Enter an organ Hilum
Lymphocyte that causes an infected or cancerous cell to burst Naural Killer Cell
The immune system's response to its first encounter with a foreign antigen Primary Immune Response
Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction Activation Energy
Venipuncture the transcutaneous puncture of inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a vein to obtain a specimen of blood, start an IV infusion, or administer medication.
Antecubital fossa hollow or depressed area anterior to the bend of the elbow.
Anticoagulant substance that prevents or delays clotting of the blood.
Lymph specialized fluid formed in the tissue spaces that returns excess fluid and protein molecules to the blood.
Lymphatic Capillaries microscopic, closed-ended tubes that extend into the interstitial spaces and the lining of the small intestine which carry excess fluid and digested fats to the bloodstream.
Lymphatic Pathways a network of vessels that transport a vast collection of cells and biochemicals.
Lymph Nodes an organ consisting of a capsule of connective tissue divided into compartments that contact dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages through which lymph circulates and are located along the lymphatic pathways.
Spleen : a bi-lobed organ, largest of the lymphatic organs, filters bacteria and old blood cells from the circulatory system.
Thymus a bi-lobed organ composed of lymphatic tissue, encased in connective tissue, that releases thymosin which stimulates the maturation of T cells important in providing immunity.
Destruction of cells bearing foreign (nonself)antigens by circulating antibodies; humoral immunity Antibody-mediated Immunity
Lymphocyte that produces antibodies to fight foreign substances in the body; B-Lymphocytes B-Cell
Group of enzymes activated by antibody combining with antigen; enhances reaction against foreign substances within body Complement
Lymphatic capillary associated with a villus of the small intestine Lacteal
Pattern of vessels that transport lymph Lymphatic Pathway
B-Lymphocyte or T-Lymphocyte produced in the primary immune response that can be activated rapidly if the same antigen is encountered in the future Memory Cell
Protein-splitting enzyme that stomach gastric glands secrete Pepsin
The structure of the walls of large lymphatic vessels is most similar to the structure of? veins: arge lymphatic vessels resemble veins and the smaller ones resemble capillaries.
The largest lymph vessel is the? thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel. thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel.
Lymph rejoins the blood and becomes part of the plasma in the? right and left subclavian veins: The two major lymph vessels empty into the subclavian veins.
Tissue fluid originates from? blood plasma: All capillaries lose some of their plasma to the tissues.
Why can lymphatic system can transport material away from capillary beds but not to them? The flow of lymph is one-way
Movement of lymph is primarily due to? muscle contraction: Since lymph pressure is so low, the main force that squeezes the vessels is the surrounding skeletal muscle; gravity can cause fluid pooling in places such as ankles or the sacrum.
Lymph nodes are usually shaped like? beans: The usual description is that of a bean
Compartments within a lymph node contain dense masses of? lymphocytes: Lymph nodes contain T and B lymphocytes.
Immune surveillance is provided by which of the lymph nodes? macrophages and lymphocytes: Macrophages will engulf anything foreign while lymphocytes provide for specific defense against a targeted agent; the hilum is the point where nerves and vessels join the node.
How do Lymphatic Vessels prvent backflow? use valves contained within the vessel.
What are lymph nodes associated with? mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Where do T-cells mature? The Thymus
Location of Cervical Nodes? approximately 300 lymph nodes in the neck
Location of Axillary Nodes? The body has about 20 to 30 bean-shaped axillary lymph nodes located in the underarm area
Location of Inguinal Nodes? lymph nodes that are located in the legs and groin area. The nodes in this area receive lymph from the legs, the outer portion of the genitalia and the lower abdominal wall
Lymph Fluid movement is accomplished by? Hydrostatic pressure, Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, Valves prevent backflow, Respiration/Breathing
When is Lymph edema created? when there is interference with normal movement of fluid into or blockage of the lymphatic capillaries
What Types of Pulp is the Spleen composed of? White: Contains many lymphocytes Red: Surrounds venous vessels, Old and fragile red blood cells may rupture when moving through capillary wall, Blood is filtered in this space
T cells,thymus cells, and B cells, bursa-derived cells, are the major components of the adaptive immune response. T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas B cells are primarily responsible for humoral immunity (relating to antibodies). T-Cells vs. B-Cells
T-Cell Killer Cells Secrete cytokines that enhance cellular responses to antigens, Secrete toxins that kill antigen-bearing cells,Secrete growth inhibiting factors that prevent cell growth, Secretes interferon
T-Cell Helper Cells Activate B cells to produce antibodies
T-Cell Memory Cells Suppressor T-Cells: Stop attack, Differentiate into killer T cells with, subsequent exposure
Active Immunity Immunity acquired through the development of antibodies from direct contact with a pathogen.
Passive Immunity Immunity acquired through the direct introduction of antibodies for a specific pathogen
How long can naturally acquired passive immunity by the fetus from a mother with active immunity? May last for six months to a year after birth.
Isoimmunity Excessive reaction of the immune system to antigens from a different individual of the same species
What is Systemic lupus erythematosus an example of autoimmune disease.
What Cause the formation of antibodies? Antigens are the catalyst to antibody formation
Gamma globulin Antibodies separated from the plasma of someone with active immunity
The lymphatic ducts will empty directly into the _____. The right and left lymphatic ducts empty their lymphatic fluid into the respective subclavian veins where the fluid mixes with venous blood returning to the heart.
What is one major force that causes interstitial fluid to enter lymphatic capillaries? tissue hydrostatic pressure: The increase in fluids around the cells eventually results in a sufficient hydrostatic pressure which can overcome the osmotic pressure of the tissues, allowing interstitial fluid to enter lymphatic capillaries.
The main activity that causes fluid to flow through lymphatic vessels is _____. Since lymphatic pressure is low, its flow must be influenced by the same factors that increase venous return such as the contraction of smooth muscle in the vessel walls and the surrounding action of the skeletal muscles (skeletal pump).
What is the main cause of edema following damage to an area of lymphatic vessels? increase in tissue proteins: Damage to a vessel interferes with the normal return of proteins that are lost from the circulation, consequently the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid increases.
Inflammation of a lymph node is called _____. Lymphadenitis is a condition of swollen, inflamed lymph nodes; lymphangitis is inflammation of the vessels.
An efferent lymphatic vessel is carrying fluid _____. away from a node
Which nodes cannot be directly palpated? The mesenteric lymph nodes lie deep within the abdominal cavity and cannot be directly palpated or felt from an external physical examination.
What is the largest lymphatic organ in a child? The thymus gland reaches a maximum size at puberty when it begins to atrophy; the spleen is the largest adult lymph organ.
The red pulp of the spleen functions to _____? phagocytize senescent cells: Old or senescent red blood cells are lysed and phagocytized by macrophages in the red pulp sinuses of the spleen.
The white pulp of the spleen functions to _____? produce lymphocytes: The white pulp contains a tissue similar to nodules that produce lymphocytes; lymphocytes are not phagocytic.
An infection results when pathogens _____. grow and cause damage:
The fact that humans usually cannot contract a monkey pneumonia is explained by the theory of _____? Species resistance occurs when an agent will not cause infection in an animal which is not genetically similar to another animal who has the infection
What inflammatory response provides the greatest protection from the spread of pathogens? fibroblast activity
The major pathologic feature of inflammation is _____. loss of function
Thymus derived lymphocytes comprise about _____% of the circulating lymphocytes. 70-80% of the peripheral blood lymphocytes are T-cells which originated in the bone marrow from thymus migration.
Cell-mediated immunity is mainly a function of _____. In CMI, the T-cells direct the activity of phagocytic cells that can engulf the foreign agent.
What factor stimulates B cell proliferation? CSF can stimulate the growth and development of B-cell populations; B and T cells often collaborate.
Which factor activates phagocytosis by monocytes? gamma-interferons stimulate phagocytosis.
T cells may produce _____, which is lethal to the target cells invaded by a pathogen. Perforins: chemicals produced by T-cells that can destroy the invading agents such as viruses, by destroying their host cell.
Humoral immunity is mediated by the _____? The B-cells cause immunity by a series of steps referred to as humoral or antibody-mediated immunity (AMI).
The specific source of antibodies is the _____? The plasma cell is the specific cell derived from the B-cell population which can produce specific antibodies.
Agammaglobinemia will seriously impair which ability? antibody production: Since most antibodies are derived from gamma globulins, this deficiency will reduce the ability to produce AMI but not necessarily impair CMI.
The cross reaction that occurs between incompatible blood types is caused by _____ antibodies? The M immunoglobulins (IgM) are part of the anti-A and anti-B blood antibodies.
Which is the most common immunoglobulin for allergies? IgE is the most common immunoglobulin that causes the pattern of a type I allergy such as hay fever. 1 1 45. Erythrocytes clump together because of a _____ process.
Erythrocytes clump together because of a _____ process Agglutinating antibodies are the agglutinins known as anti-A and anti-B that cause aggregation of the red cells and their agglutinogen antigens.
The process which increases the chance of a neutrophil or monocyte engulfing an invader is _____? psonization: Opsonins are antibodies that coat the surface of pathogens such as bacteria making them more susceptible to phagocytosis.
Tumors are most likely inactivated by _____ cells? cytotoxic T-Cells: aka killer T cells are stimulated by the antigen to attack and render non-viable the host cell the antigen is in, such as an abnormal protein from a tumor
The increase in antibody levels in a second antigen exposure is due to the _____. The memory B-cells create a population of clones that can rapidly respond to a second exposure to antigens.
A vaccination is an example of _____ immunity. In artificially acquired active immunity the immune system responds to the introduction of an antigen by producing antibodies and other factors.
Artificially acquired passive immunity could be the result of _____ injection. mma globulin obtained from persons recovering from an illness may contain antibodies to that agent which could be given to a recipient.
Naturally acquired passive immunity results from _____? placental transfer
AIDS is caused by viruses that specifically invade _____. The HIV viruses invade the T-cell causing a severe decrease in total immune abilities.
Purified protein derivative is used to screen for _____. PPD is used in the tuberculin test; antigens related to the tubercle bacillus are introduced into the skin.
What causes the symptoms of an immediate allergy reaction? Mast cells are the target of the IgE complexes that release vasoactive substances that cause the rash and itching or severe broncho-constriction that occurs in B-cell allergies.
What is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland? Graves disease causes hyperthyroidism because of the interference to the thyroid by antibodies.
The walls of lymphatic vessels are similar to those of cardiovascular _____________. Lymphatic vessels are like veins, but have even more valves
Lymphatic capillaries are able to receive cellular debris and foreign particles because ________________. of the structure of their flaplike valves: Larger items can enter lymphatic capillaries through valves.
What is the role of the thymus in protecting the body against disease? It is the site of maturation of T lymphocytes and the production of thymosin.
How are B cells activated? B cell is activated when it encounters an antigen that matches its B cell receptors and receives cytokines from helper T cells.
Which type of immunoglobulin molecule is passed on to nursing infants in breast milk? IgA: also called secretory antibody.
Where would Peyer's patches be found? small intestine
Which lymph nodes could NOT be palpated with the fingers? mesenteric: palpating deep into the abdominal cavity would be painful.
Normal Adult Temperature 97-99.6 Degrees F (36.1-37.5 Degrees C)
Normal Adult Heart Rate 60-100 beats per minute
Heart beat is Tachycardic when? greater than (>) 100 beats per minute
Heart beat is Bradycardic when? less than (<) 60 beats per minute
Normal Adult respiratory rate 12-20 breaths per minute
Tachypnea > 20 breaths per minute
Bradypnea < 12 breaths per minute
Normal adult blood pressure: Systolic blood pressure 100-120 mm Hg. / Diastolic blood pressure 70-80 mm Hg.
Normal adult SPO2 68-100
Dyspnea labored Breathing
Eupnea Normal Breathing
Fever one of the most common medical signs and is characterized by an elevation of body temperature above the normal range, due to an increase in the temperature regulatory set-point.[2] This increase in set-point triggers increased muscle tone and chills.
Febrile having or showing the symptoms of a fever.
Pyrexia a fever, or febrile condition. Can be said to be present if body temperature exceeds the normal range
Hyperthermia greatly increased body temperature
Constant Fever continuous, un-relapsing, un-relenting, intractable
Intermittent Fever undulant fever, top-bottom fever, relapsing fever
Remittent Fever Above Normal, Falls, spikes, does not return to normal
What happens to a patient's blood pressure at the end stage of Kidney Disease and why? BP will be elvated due to an increase in blood volume due to the kidney's inability to pass and filter blood
The Greater a persons lung capacity__________? The Lower the Respiration Rate.
Pulse Deficit Difference between the Apical Pulse and the Radial Pulse
How does smoking effect a person vital signs? T: Elevates P: Elevates R: Elevates B/P: Elevates
An Injury to the Brainstem can affect which vital signs? Breath Rate and Heart rate, because the part of the autonimc nervous system that controls them is located there.
symptoms that might be seen ina patient with elevated BP Headache, fushed face, epistaxis, hemmorhoids, and fatigue
Base Metabolic Rate Lowest rate of metabolic proccesses needed to sustain life.
A patient is breathing at a rate of 23 bpm their respirations are tachyapnic
What happens to vitals when there is a hemmorage? HR increases/ BP Decreases
Causes of Stress Emergency, Exercise, Excitement, Embarrassment
Which vessel supplies blood to the liver, stomach and spleen? The celiac artery branches from the abdominal aorta just inferior to the diaphragm and branches into the gastric, splenic, and hepatic arteries.
which vein contains blood from the intestines and drains into the hepatic portal vein that then carries blood to the liver. superior mesenteric
The most abundant ions in plasma are? chloride and sodium
The type of allergic response that occurs soon after contact with an allergen is a(n) immediate reaction allergy: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can occur within seconds of contact with an allergen; inflammation is not an allergic response.
Tissue rejection following organ transplantation resembles a cell-mediated response to a non-self antigen: Cell-mediated responses employ destructive macrophages that can damage foreign organs; B cells secrete antibodies.
An example of an autoimmune disease is? rheumatoid arthritis
T cells do not recognize cells, they_____? recognize antigens as foreign
Which Intracellur Substances are effective against viruses and other agents. Interferons that block RNA and DNA replication
Haptens are partial antigens that can only cause a response ___________? when combined with something else.
Three Phases of Blood Clotting Mechanism Vasospasm(Release of clotting factors) > chemical Reaction(results in formation of thrombin) > Clot Formation
HDL Good Cholesterol: High Density Lipid
LDL Bad Cholesterol: Low Density Lipid
Created by: 68C14006