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Med Surg Neuro

What is a PET scan ? A type of tomography used to study the changes within the brain
What causes Glaucoma ? Increased intraoccular Pressure
s/s of glaucoma Tunnel vision, eye pain, halos,reduced peripheral vision
Dilates pupils mydriatic drops
Unable to focus both eyes in the same direction strabismus
What is hordeolum ? stye
what is a chalazion ? cyste on the eye
What causes retinal detachment? Aging
s/s of retinal detachment Floaters, blurry vision
How is diabetic retinopahty treated ? Photocoagulation laser tx
Myopia nearsightedness
presbyopia farsightedness
Why corneal transplant at high risk for infection? no blood supply means slow healing
what precautions after eye surgery? no coughing, bending at waste
Is severe eye pain normal after cataract surgery ? NO! report it to the charge nurse or doctor
What is pink eye? conjuctivitis
Does presbyopia usually occur with age or in childhood With age due to decreased flexibility of the lens
Glaucoma characterized by rapid onset & decreased vision Closed (narrow) angled
What is the goal for tx of glaucoma? decreased amount of aqueous humor to decrease pressure
Drooping eyelids ptosis
Special microscope to examine anterior eye slit lamp
s/s of corneal ulcer pain, tearing, light sensitivity & redness
What should a PT with cataract surgery wear post op ? eye patch
Risk for cataracts aging, uv light, exposure to maternal rubella & smoking
How is the exam for the snellens chart performed? Stand a distance of 20 ft cover one eye at a time
How long would you irrigate an eye after a chemical splash? 15min
swimmers ear external otitis
Fluid collection in the middle ear , obstruction of auditory canal, ear infection otitis media
s/s of chronic otitis media crackling & fullness
Surgical procedure placing a incision into the tympanic membrane tube placement for drainage myringotomy
post of teaching for tube placement ? no swimming or showers
Menieres is characterized by ? vertigo, tinnitus, progressive hearing loss
Nursing interventions for menieres Safety. fall risk, darken rm
Surgical procedure for otosclerosis? stapedectomy
primary risk for stapedectomy? infection
post op position for stapedectomy HOB elevated lying on nonoperative ear
instructions for post op stapedectomy to prevent disloging open mouth wide while sneezing
benefits of stapedectomy increased ability to hear sounds
Symptoms of inner ear dysfuntion prolonged nausea & dizziness
hearing loss that allows normal sound conduction through external middle ear but not in the inner ear? sensoinaronal
usual cause for color blindness? Heredity & damage to the cones
Vitamin for night vision? Vit-A
type of lens replacement for cataract? intraocular
surgery mainly for myopia so that glasses are no longer needed? lasix
the patients eyes should be _______ during a sensory exam ? closed
tonic phase contraction of muscles
clonic phase withering movement
what kind of rigidity is seen in early stages of Parkinson symptoms ? cog wheel,cannot smoothly move muscle through active ROM
What red flags are indicative of MS ? young , R & L sided weakness, intermittent symptoms & vision diturbances
Pt must ____ eyebrows to differentiate between stroke & bells palsy lift both
Where so subarachnoid hematomas occur? b/w the membraneous arachniod & pia mater
2 types of head injurys blunt/closed trauma, open/penetrating trauma
head injury most common blunt/closed
medical speciality r/t the nervous system Neurology
headache/ head pain cephalgia
runny nose rhinorrhea
seizure convulsion, episode of abnormal motor sensory, cognitive & psychic activity caused by erratic & abnormal electrical discharge of brain cells
reccurent pattern of seizures epilepsy
Status epilepticus seizures or series of seizures, lasting 30 min or more which person does not regain consicouness
flaccidity brief loss of muscle tone ( seizure)
rigid contraction of body muscles tonic-phase
alternates with rhythmic jerking movements clonic-phase
specific location in the brain where a seizure originates focal point
pain in a nerve neuralgia
temporary, partial one-sided facial paralysis & weakness bell's palsy
Shingles (herpes-zoster) acute viral inflammation of the nerve caused by the varicella -zoster virus
Transection severing of the spinal cord
paralysis of the legs & lower body paraplegia
paralysis of all four extremities quadripligia
autonomic dysreflexia hyperflexia or exaggerated ANS reflexes occuring in spinal cord injury
potentially debilitating disease in which the body's immune system eats away at the myelin sheath that covers your nerves multiple sclerosis (MS)
a chronic,progressive disease affecting the dopamine producing cells of the body Parkinson disease
slowness of movement bradykinesia
failure or irregularity of muscle coordination, often a chronic condition :inability to walk Ataxia
chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by episodes of weakness in the voluntary muscles myasthenia gravis
drooping eyelids ptosis
difficulty in speaking dysphasia
abnormal involuntary movements chorea
procedure in which antibodies are removed from the blood plasmapheresis
chronic progressive, hereditary condition in which the brain cells in the basal ganglia prematurely die Huntington disease (HD)
collection of pus in that may result from infection of the ears or sinus or the skull brain abscess
inflammation of the meninges of the membranes that covers the brain & spinal cord meningitis
Stiff neck nuchal rigidity
intolerance to light photophobia
acute spasm in which the body is bowed forward with head & heels bent backwards opisthotonos
an indication of meningitis in which complete extension of the leg on the thigh is impossible when an individual lies on the back & flexes the thigh at the right angle to the axis of the trunk Kernigs sign
an indication of meningitis in which passive flexion of the leg on the side causes similar movement in the opposite leg and passive flexion of the neck causes flexion of the leg brundzinskis sign
inflammation of the white and gray matter of the brain destruction of nerve cells encephalitis
autoimmune disorder of the PNS -> antibodies start to destroy the myelin sheath of the perpheral nerves guillain barre
inflammatroy condition affecting the spinal cord Acute transverse myelitis
pressure that the brain , blood & CSF exert inside the cerebrospinal cavitiy inter-cranial pressure (ICP)
leakage of CSF from the nose oterrhea
raccon eyes periorbital ecchymosis
what age group is most affected by meningitis? children are more susceptible to bacterial and college age are more susceptible to viral
occur in one part of the brain focal seizures
Guillian barre is often related to? viral illness ( Respiratory or GI) or after surgery and vaccinations
records the brains electrical impulses as a graphed EEG
an encephalitis pt is often left with ? mental changes , seizure disorders and parkingsonian symptoms
what test would be helpfull in dx of Alzheimer or stroke PET scan
electrocerebral silence brain death
what is a tensilon test used for ? DX of myasthenia gravis, temporary relief of symptoms
GABA agonist & vitamins are used to TX MS
How can meningitis be transferred ? through direct contact of respiratory secretions
What does a 3 on GCS indicate? Brain death
What range on the GCS is associated with a coma? 6-8
what drugs are contraindicated in pt's with myasthenia gravis? sedatives ,tranquilizers, morphine * respiratory failure
tingling sensation parasthesia
TX for encephalitis is similar to the tx for? meningitis
What is vit-c used for with the eye? cataracts
considered to be a rare disease, affects the myelin sheath ,muscle atrophy & sensory Guillian Barre
What is dilantin used for ? Its an antieplicptic Drug
What medication is used for ICP? mannitol (osmitrol)
Sustained ICP over____mm/hg is called increased ICP 15-20
during severe exacerbation what can a MS pt be TX with ? IV ACTH
the underlying cause of a CVA is often? atherosclerosis of the cerebral blood vessel
What are the early signs of ALS? frequent falls, loss of motor control of the hands & arm, spacitiy of the arms
this disease has no cure no remission & generally death occurs within 5yrs ALS
chronic pain that resists therapeutic interventions intractable pain
Neostigmine & pyridostigmine are used to TX? myasthenia gravis
sudden or gradual interruption of the blood supply to the vital center in the brain CVA
CVA's are the ____ leading cause of death in the US 3rd
Where do Parkinson's tremors usually begin? In the hands (pill rolling)
levodopa is used to tx ? Parkinson's
an autoimmune disorder of the ANS Guillian Barre Syndrome
what is bleeding in the subarachnoid space called ? subarachnoid hemmorage
What should pt with MS avoid? pregnancy ,heat, morphine, hot showers
pain felt at a site other then where the cause is situated referred pain
trans-cutaneous electrical nerve stimulation electrodes placed near the site of pain , send electrical impulses to the nerve ending & blocks transmission of the signal TENS
priority nursing intervention during a seizure protect from injury & observe
difficult to spot pt appears to be daydreaming , blank stare cessation of activity, person is not aware petit mal seizure
Created by: carolyne33