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Holt Chapter 13

Mr. Wills Holt Chapter 13

Gene a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome that codes for a specific hereditary trait
Monomer a sub unit of a macro molecule ex nuleotide/nucleic acid, amino acid/protein
Macromolecule/biomolecule large macromolecule made of repeating monomers
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Nucleotide In a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base.
Purine A nitrogenous base that has a double ring structure, adenine or guanine.
Pyrimidine A nitrogenous base that has a single ring structure; in DNA either thymine or cytosine.
DNA Replication The process of making a copy of DNA
DNA Helicase An enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication.
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule.
RNA Ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA When DNA is transcribed in RNA, messenger RNA is the type of RNA that is produced,mRNA is complementary to the DNA sequence of a gene,the mRNA carries instructions for making a protein from a gene and delivers them to the site of translation.
Transfer RNA Transfer RNA reads the mRNA sequence, then tRNA translates the mRNA sequence into a specific sequence of proteins subunits, or amino acids, tRNA molecules have amino acids attached to them and the tRNA molecules act as decoders by matching the mRNA seque
Ribosomal RNA The cells cytoplasm contains thousands of ribosome’s, in eukaryotic cells ribosome’s are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, which transports proteins as the proteins are produced.
Gene Expression The manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form of specific traits.
Transcription The process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template.
Translation The portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosome’s and that uses the cordons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains.
Codon In DNA and mRNA, a three nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal.
Anti-Codon- Is a three nucleotide sequence that is complementary to an mRNA codon
Draw and label a nucleotide page 296
What are the four nucleotides of DNA and their complementary bases? A/T, G/C
What did Chargraff, Watson and Crick and Franklin do? Chargraff discovered the amount of A T and G
What are the three major steps of DNA replication? Unwinding and Separating the DNA strands, Adding Complementary Bases, Formation of Two Identical DNA molecules.
Draw a Venn Diagram showing the similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication
Compare and Contrast DNA Replication, Transcription and Translation,. Be sure to to include the end product of each.
What are the three differences between DNA and RNA? RNA is composed of one strand of nucleotides rather than two strands, RNA nucleotides contain the five carbon sugar ribose rather than the sugar deoxyribose, RNA nucleotides have a nitrogenous based called uracil instead of the base thymine.
Be able to take a strand of DNA for example, ATT-CTA-GAC-CCC-ATG, find the corresponding strand of mRNA,find the correspondind tRNA anti codons, and translate the mRNA code to a specific sequence of amino acids. MRNA-UAA-GAU-CUG-GGG-UAC, TRNA-AUU-CUA-GAC-CCC-AUG, Protein Stop-aspartic acid-luecine-glycine-tyrosine
Be able to make a mutation to a codon causing a change in translation, that does not.
What are the three good results of DNA fingerprinting? 3 bad?+Diagnosing and Preventing Disease, Treating Disease ,Indentifying Individuals
What is the hereditary material of living things DNA/ Nucleic Acids
Who discovered transformation? Griffith using S and R bacteria
Who used radioactive P and S to determine that DNA was the hereditary material Hershey and Chase
Who use enzymes that destroyed nucleic acids to show DNA was the genetic material Avery
Created by: willsm