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68C Exam 4

Endocrine & Nervous Systems, Cranial Nerves & Spcl Senses

The Electrochemical Process of Depolarization and Repolarization along a nerve Fiber Nerve Impulse
Portion of a nerve cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which the nerve fibers extend Cell Body
Nerve Fiber that transmits impulses toward a neuron cell body Dendrite
A muscle or gland that responds to stimulation Effector
A neuropeptide that occurs in the brain and spinal cord; it inhibits pain impulses Enkephalin
Membranous sacs within the cytoplasm of nerve cells that have ribosomes attached to their surfaces Nissil Bodies
A strucuture, usually Protein, at the distal end of a sensory Dendrite that can be stimulated Receptor
1 of 2 Adjacent Neurons transmitting an impulse; cell situated before the synapse is crossed Presynaptic Neuron
A type of neuroglial cell that surrounds a fiber of a peripheral nerve, forming the neurilemmal sheath and myelin Schwann Cell
A neuron that transmits an impulse from a receptor to the central nervous system, afferent Sensory Neuron
Nerve impulses arriving at the same neuron Convergence
A Specialized Dendrite that detect a particular stimulus and fires an action potential in response, which is transmitted to the central nervous system Sensory Receptor
Tiny Enlargement at the end of an Axon that secretes a neurotransmitter Synaptic Knob
Communication of an impulse from one neuron to the next Synaptic Transmission
A Neuron that has a single nerve fiber extending from its cell body Unipolar Neuron
An Atom carrying a negative charge due to an extra electron Anion
Central Nervous System CNS
A neuropeptide synthesized in the pituitary gland that suppresses pain Endorphin
A nerve Fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body Axon
Fatty Material that Forms a Sheathlike covering around some nerve fibers Myelin
A thin Process of Neuron (I.E. Axon, Dendrite) Nerve Fiber
A type of Neuroglial cell that connects Neurons to blood Vessels Astrocyte
A bundle of Nerve Fibers in the PNS Nerve
A Neuron located between a sensory Neuron and a motor Neuron; Intercalated; Internuncial, or association neuron Interneuron
A nerve cell whose cell body has only two processes, one an axon and the other a dendrite Bipolar Neuron
A substance that inhibits the action of the enzyme monoamine oxidase Monoamine Inhibitor
A peptide in the brain that functions as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator Neuropeptide
The electrochemical process of depolarization and repolarization along a nerve fiber Nerve Impulse
A type of neuroglial cell that connects neurons to blood vessels and forms myelin Oligodendrocyte
The portions of the nervous system outside the central nervous system Peripheral Nervous System
The junction between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron Synapse
Site on the Neuron where an action potential is generated Trigger Zone
A short Region of exposed (unmyelinated) axon between Schwann Cells on Neurons of the Peripheral Nervous System Node of Ranvier
A substance that alters a neuron's response to a neurotransmitter Neuromodulator
unit used to measure differences in electrical potential Volt
Transport of Substances from that Neuron cell Body to an axon terminal Axonal Transport
A membrane composed of neurglial cells that lines the ventricles of the brain Ependyma
A nerve cell that consists of a cell body and its processes Neuron
A spreading apart Divergence
The loss of an electrical charge on the surface of a membrane Depolarization
Sheath on the outside of some nerve fibers formed from Schwann Cells Neurilemma
The Sequence of electrical changes occuring when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold Action Potential
An increase in the negativity of the resting potential of a cell membrane Hyperpolarization
The hastening of any natural process, increasing efficiency of the natural Facilitation
A wave of depolarization conducted along a nerve Fiber or Muscle Fiber Impulse
Neuroglial cells that support Neurons and Phagocytize Microglia
Fine Cytoplasmic threads that extend from the cell body into the processes of neurons Neurofibrils
Peripheral Nervous System PNS
Returning the cell Membrane potential to resting potential Repolarization
A nerve cell that has many processes arising from its cell body Multipolar Neuron
The difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of an undisturbed nerve cell membrane Resting Potential
The Action resulting from a stimulus Response
Nerve impulse conduction that seems to jump from one node to the next Saltatory Conduction
Development of an electrical charge on the surface of a cell membrane due to an unequal distribution of ions on either side of the membrane Polarization
Portion of the Nervous System that consists of the brain and spinal cord; CNS Central Nervous System
Three Major Sections of a Neuron Cell Body, Dendrites, Axon
Efferent, Multipolar Neuron Motor Neurons
Senory Neurons Afferent, Mostly Unipolar, sometimes bi-polar neurons
Tract bundle of central axons
White matter tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons (nerves or tracts)
Gray matter tissue composed primarily of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
Endoneurium surrounds individual fibers within a nerve
Perineurium surrounds a group (fascicle) of nerve fibers
Epineurium surrounds the entire nervea
Axon A(n) _____ is the part of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell. This also means that it is efferent
Dendrite The ________ receives impulses and is the most numerous part of the neuron.
Neurofibrils The neuron cell body consists of granular cytoplasm, a cell membrane, organelles and a network of fine threads called_____.
Function of the Myelin Sheath Increases the speed of conduction through a neuron
Lipoprotein layer that covers (insulates) some axons. Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheaths are formed from plasma membranes of specialized glial cells known as Schwann cells.
What is a neural impulse? Conduction
Continuous conduction The nerve impulse must travel the entire length of the axon.
Saltatory conduction The nerve impulse jumps across the gaps along the length of the axon. includes the Nodes of Ranvier
Conduction of Impulses include? Polarization, Depolarization, Repolarization, Refractory period
Synapse The Area where communication takes place between Neurons
Chemical Synapse Most Numerous type of synapse
Two factors influence the rate of conduction of the impulse The axon’s diameter, The presence (or absence) of a myelin sheath
Nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to effectors over neuron pathways Reflex Arc
What results in a reflex and is the simplest of nerve pathways Conduction by a reflex arc
Neurons do not pass directly into the brain, They? Synapse in the spinal cord
Activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain, allows? allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly.
Synapse Communication between neurons is known as a ________?
Myelin The __________ is a lipoprotein membrane that insulates and protects some neurofibrils.
Reflexes ____________ are automatic subconscious responses to changes (stimuli) within or outside the body.
Diseases that cause disruption of the Sensory or Motor Pathway Multiple Sclerosis, Guillian Barre
Trauma that cause disruption of the Sensory or Motor Pathway Peripheral Nerve Damage
Emboli that cause disruption of the Sensory or Motor Pathway CVA
Medications that cause disruption of the Sensory or Motor Pathway ASA, Anesthetics, Morphine (opioids
How do NBC Agents cause disruption of the Sensory or Motor Pathway? Most nerve agents bind with acetylcholinesterase and prevent it from working properly. Acetylcholine’s effects are exaggerated and prolonged. Salivary glands secrete in excess.Pupils are pinpointed. Bronchioles constrict, etc.
four parts of the CNS Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Pons, Medulla,
Structures that protect the CNS Cranial Bones, Vertebrae, Meninges,
Meninges protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. Spaces occur between meninges.
Dura Mater Outermost layer. Composed of tough, white fibrous connective tissue.Contains many blood vessels and nerves.
Where is the Dura Mater Attached Firmly to the bones & Functions as the periosteum
In the spinal column the dura mater is surrounded by? adipose tissue
epidural space The area between the vertebrae and the dura mater
Arachnoid Thin, web-like membrane that lacks blood vessels
Arachnoid Location between the dura mater and pia mater
What Does a spinal tap do? Remove fluid from the subarchnoid space
Subarachnoid Space CSF filled space between arachnoid and pia mater
CSF Cerebral Spinal Fluid that surrounds brain cushioning it in the skull
Pia Mater Thin delicate innermost layer attached to the organ surface. Contains nerves and blood vessels
Choroid Plexus cauliflower–like masses of specialized capillaries contained in the Pia Mater
The _______ is located between the dura mater and pia mater and contains web-like membranes Arachnoid
The _____ _____ is the outermost layer, composed of tough fibrous connective tissue. Dura mater
Csf is formed in THE _________. Choroid plexus
Three meninges that cover the spinal cord are The outer dura mater. The arachnoid membrane. The innermost pia mater.
Cerebrospinal fluid found in? subarachnoid space
Spinal Cord Extends from the medulla oblongata in the brain to near the lumbar level at L1-2, terminating the cauda equina. It is about 45 cm long in men and 42 cm long in women. Ovoid-shaped, and is enlarged in the cervical and lumbar regions
This portion of the brain is located at the back, beneath the occipital lobes and it coordinates body movements Cerebellum
This portion of the brain makes up 85% of the brain’s weight. It has 2 large hemispheres and is responsible for high level functions Cerebrum
This portion of the brain lies underneath the cerebrum and connects to the brain stem. It is the main relay station of sensory signals (except smell). Thalamus
This portion of the nervous system is responsible for the control of unconscious activity? Autonomic Nervous system
As a subsystem of the peripheral nervous system, the _______ is responsible for RELAXATION EFFECTS? Somatic nervous system
What is the difference between an oligodendrocyte and a Schwann cell? Oligodendrocytes main function is the insulation of the axons exclusively in the central nervous system of the higher vertebrates, a function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. A single oligodendrocyte can extend to up to 50 axon
The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and _____. spinal cord
dendrite The______of a neuron carries the impulse towards the nucleus.
Nissl body Which part of a neuron is directly involved with protein synthesis?
synaptic knob ch part of a neuron comes in close proximity to another neuron at the synapse?
microglia The phagocytic cells in the CNS are the ______.
astrocyte The _____cells provide a means of acquiring nutrients in the brain.
The resting potential of a neuron is _____mv -70, The voltage across a resting axon membrane is -70mv, -90 would represent hyperpolarization and +30 is the action potential.
The minimal stimulus needed to cause a neuron to transmit an impulse is called the _____. threshold, The threshold is the minimum stimulus needed to initiate a response.
Saltatory conduction occurs when an impulse jumps from _____. node to node
Saltatory conduction refers to the occurrence of depolarizations at the nodes of Ranvier
acetylcholine The most common neurotransmitter in the body is _____.
Acetylcholine is decomposed by _____almost as fast as it is released. acetylcholinesterase, Acetyl-cholinesterase is an enzyme found in the synapse which inactivates acetylcholine.
A morphine-like pain suppressing brain substance is _____. beta-endorphin
A change in a dendrite which lessens the probability of a conduction is the _____. IPSP, Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
(IPSP) Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential, can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. Inhibitory presynaptic neuron
A drug, which prevents over-stimulation by the PNS neurons, is _____. Curare, skeletal-muscle–relaxant drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds. Of botanical origin, it is used in modern medicine primarily as an auxiliary in general anesthesia, frequently with cyclopropane, especially in abdominal surgery.
Which type of short neuron is found in the retina? bipolar, One type of associating neuron in the retina of the eye is the short, bipolar type
The following belong together except which one? Sensory, neurons are usually unipolar and afferent in direction while motor fibers are usually efferent and multipolar.
The nucleus of a sensory neuron can be found within the _____. ganglia, The dorsal root ganglion contains the nuclei of all incoming sensory fibers.
Gross nerves that contain sensory impulses are referred to as _____. Afferent nerves are sensory.
The PNS is comprised of cranial nerves and _____. 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves comprise the peripheral nervous system.
Collaterals are fibers arising from the ____of neurons. Axon branches are called collateral fibers.
Nerves that carry impulses from the heart to the brain could be classed as _____fibers. visceral efferent, Visceral refers to an organ and afferent nerves are sensory.
The cells that produce myelin in the PNS are the ______. Schwann cells are glial cells that produce myelin in the PNS
Association nerves are also called? internuncial, interneurons or central neurons
The ______cells play a role in the establishment of a blood-brain chemical barrier. Astrocytes are glial cells in the CNS that are essential for the blood-brain barrier.
Branched nerve fibers that convey local potential changes toward the cell body of a neuron are called _____________. Dendrites are extensions of the cell body whose information travels toward the cell body.
Myelin sheaths on the outsides of many axons in the peripheral nervous system are contributed by ______________. Schwann cells are myelinating cells in the PNS.
A neuron with many nerve fibers arising from its cell body and that carries impulses away from the brain would be classified as __________________. multipolar and motor, Structurally it is multipolar, functionally it is motor.
Which types of neurons are likely to increase muscular activities? Excitatory neurons, which depolarize a cell.
The _______________ are the types of neuroglial cells that provide myelin in the central nervous system. Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the CNS.
Which type of neuroglial cells help regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid? Ependyma line the ventricles and modify CSF.
Schwann cell (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
At resting potential, the ion distribution inside and outside of a neuron is such that __________ ions are most abundant on the outside of the cell, while __________ ions are most abundant on the inside of the cell. sodium; potassium, Throughout the body, sodium is the major extracellular cation, and potassium is the major intracellular cation
In response to a stimulus, if the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential, we say the membrane is _______________. Hyperpolarized, More negative is farther from zero, therefore the membrane becomes more polar, or hyperpolar.
When a neuron reaches action potential, it depolarizes and repolarizes in an amount of time on the order of ________________. milliseconds, Action potentials occur in about 1-2/1000 of a second.
Excessive sleeping is most likely due to the presence of too much of which neurotransmitter? serotonin
Myasthenia gravis reflects a deficiency in communication by _______________ because receptors for this neurotransmitter have been destroyed. acetylcholine, This is a skeletal muscle disorder. Ach is the neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle.
Fibers that originate from different parts of the nervous system and lead to the same neuron are exhibiting _____________. convergence, When nerve pathways come together they are said to converge.
The cells that conduct messages towards the brain are the_______________. sensory neurons, ry impulses go toward the brain.
Neuroglia Cells Microglia, Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte
The _____ cells are capable of removing a blood clot from the brain Microglia, because they are phagocytic.
The Outside of a Neuron is __________ when it is at rest? Positive, Based on RMP, the outside of a cell is more postive, and the inside is more negative.
Delicat, Weblike Middle Layer of the Meninges Arachnoid Mater
Aportion of the Brain located below the thalamus and forming the floor of the 3rd Ventricle Hypothalamus
The inner portion of an organ Medulla
The Space within the Meninges between the arachnoid Mater and the pia Mater Subarachnoid Space
The first pair of cranial nerves, which conduct impulses associated with the sense of smell Olfactory Nerves
A cerebral lobe located deep within the lateral sulcus Insula
A mass of gray matter located at the base of the Cerebrum in the wall of the 3rd Ventricle Thalamus
The membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (Sing., Meninx) Meninges
Portion of the brain that occupies the upper part of the cranial cavity and provides higher mental functions Cerebrum
Portion of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord Parasympathetic Division
Neurons in the brain stem that control the diameter of the arteries Vasomotor Center
Any cell of the body other than the sex cells Somatic Cell
Portion of the brain that includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata Brain Stem
Motor Branch of a spinal nerve by which it attaches to the spinal cord Ventral Root
A mass of white matter within the brain, composed of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres Corpus Callosum
A narrow cleft separating parts, such as the lobes of the cerebrum Fissure
A cavity, such as those of the brain that are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, or those of the heart that contain blood Ventricle
Nerve that arises from the spinal cord Spinal Nerve
Recording of fluctuating electrical activity in the brain Brain Wave
portion of the brain that coordinates skeletal muscle movement Cerebellum
Portion of the Cerebrum that includes certian Basal Ganglia Corpus Striatum
Blood-Filled Channel formed by the splittng of the dura mater into two layers Dural Sinus
Nerve Tracts, other than the corticospinal tracts, that transmit impulses from the cerebral cortex into the spinal cord Extrapyramidal Tract
Region of the central Nervous System that Generally lacks Myelin and thus appears gray Gray Mater
A region of the brain from which impulses to muscles or glands originate Motor Area
A long bundle of nerve fibers within the CNS having the same origin, function, termination Nerve Tract
A portion of the nervous system that controls the actions of the visceral organs and skin Autonomic Nervous Sysytem
An area of the body supplied by sensory nerve fibers associated with a particular dorsal root of a spinal nerve Dermatome
Loss of Consciousness due to a violent blow to the head Concussion
The Anteriormost portion of the developing brain that gives rise to the cerebrum and basal ganglia Forebrain
A Neurotransmitter released from the axons of some nerve fibers Norepinepherine
Tough Outer Layer of the Meninges Dura Mater
Pertaining to the sense of smell Olfactory
A group of neurons in the medulla oblongata that controls heart rate Cardiac Center
A Small Structure located in the Central part of the brain Pineal Gland
A portion of the brain stem above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain Pons
A small bundle of muscle fibes Fasciculus
One of the large, paired structures that together constitute the cerebrum of the brain Cerebral Hemisphere
The sensory branch of a spinal nerve by which it joins the spinal cord Dorsal Root
Body region between the scrotum or urethral opening and the anus Perineum
Groups of nerve fibers that carry nerve impulses downward from the brain through the spinal cord Descending Tracts
Autonomic nerve fiber located on the distal side of a ganglion Postganglionic Fiber
Layer of Fibrous Connective Tissue taht encloses Cartilaginous structure Perichondrum
Outer Layer of the Cerebrum Cerebral Cortex
A mass of coagulated blood within tissues or a body cavity Hematoma
A part of the cerebral cortex where memories form Hippocampus
Autonomic nerve fiber located on the proximal side of a Ganglion Preganglionic Fiber
Portion of the brain stem that controls the depth and rate of breathing Respiratory Center
A portion of the cerebral cortex that receives and interprets sensory nerve impulses Sensory Area
Tube that connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles of the brain Cerebral Aqueduct
Fluid occupying the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord Cerebrospinal Fluid
A network of interlaced nerves or blood vessels Plexus
A nerve composed of sensory nerve fibers Sensory Nerve
A bundle of nerve fibers connecting the cerebellum and the brain stem Cerebellar Peduncles
Layer of loose connective tissue that surrounds the individual nerve fibers Endoneuriumm
An intermediate compound produced during the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats Acetyl Coenzyme A
Mass of Gray Matter located deep within a cerebral hemisphere of the brain Basal Ganglion
A group of spinal nerves that extends below the distal end of the spinal cord Cauda Equina
Mass of specialized capillaries from which Cerebrospinal Fuid is secreted into a ventricle of the brain Choroid Plexus
A nerve that arises from the brain Cranial Nerve
Treelike pattern of white matter in a section of cerebellum Arbor Vitae
A nerve fiber that secretes Acetylcholine at the axon terminal Cholinergic Fiber
A nerve that consists of motor nerve fibers Motor Nerve
Region of the cerebral cortex related to memory, reasoning judgement, and emotional feeling Association Area
Pertaining to the eye Optic
Portion of the brain stem located between the pons and the spinal cord Medulla Oblongata
An elevation on structure's surface caused by infolding of it upon itself Convolution
outermost layer of connective tissue surrounding a nerve Epineurium
The infusion of a substance directly into the cerebrospinal fuid Intrathecal Injection
Layer of connective tissue that encloses a bundle of nerve Fibers within a nerve Perineurium
Inner Layer of Meninges that encloses the brain and spinal cord Pia Mater
An enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of Acetylcholine Cholinestrase
Sudden Interruption of blood flow to the brain, a STROKE Cerebrovascular Accident
Total Loss of Muscle Tone when nerve fibers are damages Flaccid Paralysis
X-Shaped Structure on the underside of the brain formed by a partial crossing over of fibers in the optic nerves Optic Chiasma
The outer layer of the cerebellum Cerebellar Cortex
A small region of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the pons Mid Brain
Sympathetic Ganglia that form chains along the sides of the vertebral column Paravertebrall Ganglia
Substance from which another substance forms Precursor
A Large, Pyramid-shaped Neuron in the cerebral cortex Pyramidal Cell
A nerve pathway, consisting of a sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron, that forms the structural and functional bases for a reflex arc Reflex Arc
A substance secreted by the Hypothalamus whose target cells are in the anterior pituitary gland Releasing Hormone
Region of the frontal lobe that coordiante complex muscular actions of the mouth, tongue, and larynx, making speech possible Broca's Area
A group of connected structures within the brain that produces emotional feelings Limbic System
A complex Network of nerve fibers within the brain stem that arouses the cerebrum Reticular Formation
pertianing to the body somatic
A form of paralysis characterized by an increasse in muscular tone without atrophy of the muscles involved Spastic Paralysis
Pertaining to the Spinal Cord or to the Vertebral canal Spinal
A short nerve containing postanglionic axons returning to a spinal nerve Gray Ramus
Receptor on an effector Cell Membrane that Combines mainly with Epinepherins and only slightly with norepinepherine Beta Receptor
A branch of a nerve fiber or blood vessel Collateral
A rapid, Automatic response to stimulus Reflex
Portion of the Central Nevous system extending downward from the brain stem through the vertebral canal Spinal Cord
Portion of the autonomic Nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord Sympathetic Nervous System
Groups of nerve fibers in the spinal cord that transmit sensory impulses upward to the brain Ascending Tracts
Sleep in which some areas of the brain are active, producing dreams and rapid eye movements Paradoxical Sleep
The stalk attaching the pituitary gland to the base of the brain Infundibulum
Fingerlike structures that project from the subarachnoid space of the meninges into blood-filled dural sinuses and reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid Arachnoid Granulation
A mass of Neuron cell bodies usually outside the central nervous system (pl. Ganglia) Ganglion
Nerve that includes both sensory and motor nerve fibers Mixed Nerve
A nerve fiber that secretes noreipinephrine at the axon terminal Adrenergic Fiber
Portion of the brain in the region of the 3rd venticle that includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus Diencephalon
A portion of the respiratory control center located ain the pons Apneustic Area
A shallow groove, such as that between convolutions on the surface of the brain Sulcus
Mass of Sensory Neuron Cell bodies located in the dorsal root of spinal nerve Dorsal Root Ganglion
The space between the dural sheath of the spinal cord and the bone of the vertebral canal Epidural Space
A hormone that adrenal Medulla secretes during times of stress Epinepherine
Posteriormost portion of the developing brain that gives rise to the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata HindBrain
A small structure locted in the central part of the brain Pineal Gland
Anosmia loss of sense of smell
Anopia absence of vision
Aqueous Humor watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye, (in front of the lens)
Choroid middle layer of the eyeball that contains a dark pigment to prevent the scattering of incoming light rays
Cochlea snail shell or structure of a similar shape
Conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva
Cornea transparent, anterior portion of the sclera
Cranial Nerve any of 12 pairs of nerves that attach to the undersurface of the brain and conduct impulses between the brain and structures in the head, neck, thorax and abdomen
Diplopia double vision
Hemianopia blindness in one half of the visual field
Iris colored portion of the eye
Lacrimal Gland the glands that produce tears, located in the upper lateral portion of the orbit
Sclera white outer coat of the eyeball
Somatic Nervous System (SNS) the motor neurons that control the voluntary actions of skeletal muscles
Tympanic Membrane (drumlike): tissue membrane separating external ear from middle ear,(also called the eardrum
Vitreous Humor the jellylike fluid found in the posterior cavity of the eye, (posterior to the lens
CN I arises? from the cerebral brain
CN II arises? from the diencephalon
CNIII - CN XII arise? from the brainstem
Sensory Cranial Nerves Olfactory, Optic and Vestibulocochlear.
Motor Cranial Nerves Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens, Accessory and Hypoglossal
Mixed Cranial Nerves Trigeminal, Facial, Glossopharyngeal, and Vagus.
I olfactory nerve chemoreceptors that are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in the mucus of the nasal passages.
I olfactory nerve Assessment done by using an alcohol pad
I Olfactory Nerve receptors The receptors and supporting cells are located in the upper portion of the nasal cavity (olfactory epithelium).
II Optic Nerve sensory nerve that carries visual signals from the eye to the brain
II Optic Nerve location fibers from the nasal half of the optic nerve cross in the Optic Chiasm. Optic nerve pathways terminate in the visual cortex of the occipital lobes
III Oculomotor Nerve Helps raise eyelid, Constricts the pupil and focuses the lens, Move the eye upward, downward, medial, and upward-oblique (R&L).
Muscle responsible for upward eye movement Superior Rectus, Oculomotor Nerve (Cranial Nerve III)
Muscle responsible for downward eye movement Inferior Rectus, (Cranial Nerve III)
Muscle responsible for medial eye movement Medial Rectus, (Cranial Nerve III)
Muscle responsible for up-oblique eye movement Inferior Oblique, (Cranial Nerve III)
IV Trochlear Nerve Helps move the eye downward and oblique
Muscle Responsible for Downward-Oblique eye movement Superior Oblique, Trochlear Nerve (Cranial IV)
VI Abducens Nerve Motor Nerve that moves the eye away from the midline
Muscle Responsible for moving eye away from midline Lateral Rectus, Abducens (Cranial Nerve VI)
V Trigeminal Nerve Mixed Nerve, Largest Cranial Nerve, Carries Sensation from parts of face and eye, Motor impulses to the muscles of mastication
Branches of Trigeminal Nerve Opthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular
VII Facial Nerve Stimulates? Facial Expression, by motor fibers controling the muscles of facial expression
VII Facial Nerve and Tongue Carries taste from the tongue, The sense of taste is carried on 3 different cranial nerves (VII, IX & X) but a major portion is carried on a branch of the facial nerve.
Bell's palsy form of temporary facial paralysis resulting from damage or trauma to one of the two facial nerves, most common cause of facial paralysis, affects only one of the paired facial nerves and one side of the face
Why does Ear surgery often has a very noticeable impact upon the sense of taste? branch of the nerve that carries taste sensations passes immediately medial to the eardrum and this nerve may be damaged
VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve carries sensory information for hearing and equilibrium
VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve Vestibular Branch associated with inner ear and the neuromuscular reflexes to help maintain equilibrium.
VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve Cochlear Branch carry the impulse from the inner ear’s hearing receptors to the temporal lobes, where sound is interpreted.
IX glossopharyngeal nerve mixed nerve that carries senses from pharynx, tonsils and posterior third of the tongue, controls swallowing action, and gag reflex
IX glossopharyngeal nerve sensory Components fibers carry impulses from the lining of the pharynx, tonsils and posterior third of the tongue.
IX glossopharyngeal nerve motor components fibers are responsible for the gag reflex and controls swallowing action.
X Vagus Nerve Mixed Nerve, Longest Nerve, Involves both the somatic and autonomic nervous system, functions include: Control over heart rate, responsible for swallowing and speech, carries info from pharynx, larynx, esophagus and viscera of the thorax and abdomen
X Vagus Nerve Somatic Nervous Sytem motor responsible for swallowing and speech
X Vagus Nerve Autonomic Nervous System control of smooth muscles and glands in the thorax and abdomen.
Cranial Nerve that involvles control over heart rate Most Important, X Vegas Nerve
X Vagus Nerve Sensory Function motor fibers carry impulses from the pharynx, larynx, esophagus and viscera of the thorax and abdomen
X Vagus Nerve Innervation Pharynx, Left Lung, Right Lung, Heart, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Right Kidney, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
XI Spinal Accessory Nerve Motor Nerve, Controls muscles of the upper shoulder and neck. (e.g. shrugging; head turn/tilt)
XII Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles that move the tongue (e.g. chewing swallowing and speaking).
Hypoglossal Paralysis deviation of the protruded tongue to the affected side is visible. This is caused by the greater innervation of the uninvolved side.
Special Senses those whose receptors are within the complex sensory organs of the head
Smell Nose: Olfactory Organs, Olfactory Nerves
Taste Taste Buds: Facial, Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves.
Hearing & Equilibrium Ears: Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Vision Eyes: Optic Nerve
Why must you sniff to smell a slight odor? The Olfactory Organs are Located high above usual pathway for inhaled air-must sniff to force air up to the receptor areas to smell a faint odor
Olfactory organs contains olfactory receptors are yellow brown masses of epithelium about the size of a postage stamp. located in the upper parts of the nasal cavity
Process for Olfactory Organ function Odors in the form of gasses must react with the moisture surrounding these in order for the receptor cells to detect them.
olfactory cortex area for interpretation of smell, located in the base of the frontal lobes and in the temporal lobes
gustatory cell Modified Epithelial Cell that functions as taste receptors, each taste bud contains a group of these cells
Taste buds sense organs of taste
Taste Bud Anatomy Each taste bud has 10-15 receptor cells with a taste hair that is believed to be the actual transmitter of taste
Sweet response from taste buds primarily located on the tip of the tongue
Sour response from taste buds primarily located on the margins of the togue
Salty response from taste buds primarily are widely distributed on the tongue
Bitter response from taste buds primarily located on the back of the tongue
Umami response from taste buds affected by foods high in glutamic acid (Savory)
Nerves involved with sense of taste Sensory impulses from the taste receptors travel along the Facial (CN VII), the Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and the Vagus (CN X) nerves.
gustatory cortex Located in Parietal lobe, taste impulses are transmitted to it.
External Ear collects sound waves created by vibrating objects.
Auricle (Pinna): outer funnel-like structure that gathers the sound waves and directs the waves thru the external auditory canal to the ear drum.
External Auditory Canal a curved tube extending from the auricle into the temporal bone, ending at the tympanic membrane
Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)A partition between the external and middle ear, vibrates in response to the sound wave
What Does a healthy tympanic membrane look like A Pearl
membrane connected to the auditory ossicles Tympanic membrane helps to transmit vibrations between these parts.
Middle Ear An air-filled space within the temporal bone, that begins at the mucous membrane side of the Tympanic membrane
Eustachian tube In Children short and continuous with the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, therefore they are more susceptible to ear infections
Eustachian tube connects the throat with the middle ear, helps maintain equal air pressure on both sides of the eardrums (necessary for normal hearing).
Eustachian tube and Illness Common pathway for the spread of infection to the middle ear
Ossicles Malleus, Incus, & Stapes located behind the tympanic membrane
Malleus Conducts sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the inner ear.
Incus Help to increase (amplify) the force of vibrations as they are passed from eardrum to the oval window
Stapes Vibration of the stapes at the oval window moves a fluid within the inner ear, which stimulates the hearing receptors.
Inner Ear Consists of three spaces in the temporal bone, assembled in a complex maze called the bony labyrinth
Cochlea snail shell or structure of a similar shape
Vestibule located in the inner ear; the portion adjacent to the oval window between the semicircular canals and the cochlea
Semicircular Canals located in the inner ear; contains a specialized receptor called the crista ampullaris that generates a nerve impulse on movement of the head
Organ of Corti Contained in the Cochlea, has receptor cells w/ hair like structures, housed between two membranes and filled w/ fluid (endolymph)
Perilymph Fluid that fills the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canal
Static equilibrium maintained by the Vestibules - senses the position of the head, maintaining stability and posture when the head and body are still
Dynamic equilibrium Maintained by the Semicircular Canals by detecting motion and aids in maintaining balance
Three Distinct layers of the eye Outer (sclera) - fibrous tunic Middle (choroid) - vascular tunic Inner (retina)
Sclera - white outer coat of the eyeball consists of tough fibrous tissue
Cornea transparent “window of the eye” anterior portion of the sclera and its convex shape helps focus light rays through the lens and onto the retina. transparent because it is avascular
Conjunctiva a mucous membrane that lines the inner eyelids and covers the anterior sclera…up-to the cornea
Lacrimal gland located in the upper lateral portion of the orbit,produces tears which contain bacteriostatic enzymes, baths the surface of the eye via the lacrimal duct to moisten and protect, tear fluid drains into the nasocavity via the lacrimal canals
Flow of Tears Lacrimal Gland > Lacrimal Ducts > Lacrimal Canal > Nasolacrimal Duct > Nasal Cavity
Ciliary body Two involuntary muscles make up the front part of the choroid, the iris and the ciliary muscle
Vascular layer providing nutrients to sclera and retina Choroid - Contains many melanocytes – absorb excess light.
Anterior Chamber of the Eye Between the cornea and the iris, Location where the aqueous humor is drained
Posterior Chamber of the Eye Between the iris and the lens, Location where the aqueous humor is produced
Vitreous Chamber of the Eye Between the lens and retina, Contains the vitreous humor
Ciliary muscle When we look at distant objects, this muscle is relaxed and the lens has a slightly curved shaped.
Lies directly behind the iris. Lens of the eye
What Happens to focus on near objects ciliary muscle must contract
Lens of the eye is held in place by? a suspensory ligaments attached the ciliary muscles.
The opening of the iris through which light passes is called? The Pupil, shaped like a donut hole
The Iris Divides? the anterior chamber from the posterior chamber
The Iris is made up of two types muscle tissue Radial fibers (spokes in a wheel): dilate the pupils when they contract, entrance of light rays. (sympathetic response a1). Circular fibers: constrict the pupils when they contract, entrance of light rays. (parasympathetic response).
What are Floaters? Tiny Dense Clumps of Vitreous Humor that form and block the field of vision as we age.
Macula lutea yellowish area near the center of the retina.
Fovea centralis the greatest concentration of cones of any area of the retina.
rods and cones Photoreceptors of the retina that are stimulated by light rays and transfer signal to optic nerve
Retina Located in the inner layer of the eye, ns microscopic sensory photoreceptor cells.
origin of impulse that is transmitted to the occipital lobe of the brain via the optic nerve? Rod and Cones within the innermost layer of the retina, respond to light stimulus and produce a nerve impulse.
Visual Refraction occurs as light pass thru the cornea, the aqueous humor, the lens, and the vitreous humor on its way to the retina.
How is light focused on the retina? Light enters the eye through the pupil and is refracted, or bent, so that it is focused on the retina.
Function of Cones Less sensitive to light. Detect color. Provide sharp clear images. Quicker to react to light. Mostly in central area of retina
Function of Rods Very sensitive to light (100x more sensitive than Cones). Allow you to see in dim light. See only in black and white. Provide for general outlines-less precise images. Slower to react to light changes. mostly in periphery of the retina
The visual impulse moves from the retina to Where? visual cortex in the brain via optic nerves and is perceived as vision.
Vitamin A Deficiencies leads to night blindness how? Low Rhodopsin Production results in poor vision in dim light
Rhodopsin Light Sensitive Molecules secreted in low light. Breaks down in the presence of bright light.
Hemianopsia condition that can sometimes affect stroke patients
Origin of axons that connect to the right occipital region of the brain Axons from the left medial bundle cross and join with the axons of the right lateral bundle
Origin of axons that connect to the left occipital region of the brain The axons from the right medial bundle cross and join with the axons of the left lateral bundle
Optic nerves are bundles of axons that form an? x shaped structure at the optic chiasma where some of the nerve impulses cross.
Changes in pressure or movement stimulate mechanoreceptors, respond to pressure and movement
The manner in which an impulse from a sensory receptor is perceived depends upon the area of the brain stimulated, The cerebrum functions to interpret the meaning of sensory information.
All sensory receptors adapt to repeated stimulation by sending fewer and fewer impulses, except those for__________? Pain receptors do not seem to adapt or ignore repeated stimulation.
light touch on your palm will stimulate Meissner’s corpuscles respond to light touch in areas of hairless skin.
Thermoreceptors are free nerve endings because Warm receptors do not respond to temperatures above 45 degrees C; temperatures in this range are perceived as pain.
Which events will elicit pain from visceral organs? stretching or spasm of visceral smooth muscle
What is true of acute pain? impulses are carried on thin, myelinated fibers because Thin myelinated fibers conduct acute, short-duration pain.
Wich areas of the brain regulates the awareness of pain impulses? The thalamus screens all sensations except smell; neurons in the brainstem can block pain signals in the spinal cord.
The receptors for taste and smell are examples of? chemoreceptors, Stimuli for taste and smell must be in chemical form.
Olfactory receptors are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity, the septum and the_________? superior nasal conchae, Most of the receptors for smell are in the mucous lining of the superior nasal conchae.
Adjustment of lens of eye for close or distant vision Accomodation
Expansion at the end of each semicircular canal that contains a crista ampullatis Ampulla
Watery fluid that fills the anterior cavity of the eye Aqueous Humor
Pertaining to the ear, or sense of hearing Auditory
Bone of middle ear Auditory Ossicle
Tube that connects middle ear cavity to pharynx; eustachian tube Auditory Tube
Receptor stimulated by binding of certian chemical Chemoreceptor
Vascular, pigmented middle layer of wall of eye Choroid Coat
Structure associated with the choroid layer of eye that secretes aqueous humor and contains the ciliary muscle Ciliary Body
Muscles whose fibers are organized in circular patterns, usually around an opening or in the wall of a tube; sphincter muscles Circular Muscles
Portion of inner ear that contains hearing receptors cochlea
Color receptors in retina of eye Cones
Membranous covering on anterior surface of eye Conjunctiva
Transparent anterior portion of outer layer of eye wall Cornea
Sensory organ within semicircular canal that functions in sense of dynamic quilibrium Crista Ampullaris
Maintenance of balance when head and body are suddenly moved or rotated dynamic equilibrium
Fluid within membranous labyrinth of inner ear endolymph
Stat of balance between two opposing forces equilibrium
Region of retina, consisiting of densely packed cones, that provides the greatest visual acuity Fovea Centralis
Colored, muscular portion of eye that surrounds the pupil and regulates its size Iris
System of connecting tubes within inner ear, including cochlea vestibule, and semicircular canals Labyrinth
Tear-secreting Gland Lacrimal Gland
Mechanoreceptor Macula Lutea
Pertaining to the eye Optic
Region inthe retina of eye where nerve fibers leave to become part of the optic nerve Optic Disk
Small particle of calcium carbonate associated with receptors of equilibrium Otolith
Opening between stapes and inner ear Oval window
Sensory nerve ending associated with feeling pain Pain Receptor
Fuild in space between membranous and osseous labyrinths of inner ear Perilymph
portion of digestive tube between mouth and esophagus Pharynx
Sensory receptor sesnitive to light energy: rods and cones Photoreceptor
Process by which brain causes a sensation to seem to come from region of body being stimulated Projection
Nerve ending that senses changes in muscle or tendon tension Proprioceptor
Opening in iris through which light enters eye Pupil
Pain that feels as if it is originating from a part other than the site being stimulated referred pain
bending of light as it passes between media of different densities refraction
inner layer of eye wall that contains visual receptors Retina
Form of Vitamin A: Retinene Retinal
Chemical Precursor of rhodopsin, a visual pigment Retinene
Light-Sensitive pigment in rods of the retina; visual purple rhodopsin
Type of receptor that provides colorless vision rod
Membrane-covered opening between inner and middle ear round window
White, Fobrous outer layer of eyeball Sclers
Tubular Structure within inner ear that contains receptors providing sense of dynamic equilibrium Semiciricular Canal
Feeling resulting from the brain's interpretation of sensory nerve impulses Sensation
Sensory receptors becoming less responsive after constant repeated stimulation Sensory Adaptation
Sense that involves receptors associated with specialized sensory organ, such as the eyes and ears. Special Sense
Maintenance of balance when the head and body are motionless Static Equilibrium
Organ Containing receptors associated with sense of tatse Taste Bud
Sensory receptor sensitive to temperature changes; heat and cold receptors Thermoreceptor
Thin Membrane that covers auditory canal and separates external ear from middle ear; ear drum Tympanic Membrane
Enlarged portion of membranous labyrinth of inner ear Utricle
Substance between lens and retina of eye Vitreous Humor
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH
Enzyme activiated when certian hormones combine with receptors on cell membranes circularizing ATP to cyclic AMP Adenylate Cyclase
Antidiuretic Hormaine ADH
Outer portion of the adrenal gland Adrenal Cortex
Hormaone that the anterior pituitary secretes to stimulate activity in adrenal cortex Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Hormone that the adrenal cortex secretes to regulate sodium and potassion ion concentrations and fluid volume aldosterone
Front Lobe of pituitary gland Anterior pituitary
Hormone that the posterior pituistary lobe releases to enhance water conservtion by kidney Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Hormone the thyroid glad secretes to help regulate blood calcium concentration Calcitonin
Series of myocardinal contraction and relaxations that constitutes a complete heartbeat Cardiac Cycle
Pattern of repeated behavoir associated with cycles of night and day Circadian rhythm
Glucocorticoide that the adrenal cortex secretes cortisol
Phase of cardiac cycle when heart chamber wall relaxes Diastole
Kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation Erythopoietin
Substance that the anterior pituitary secretes to stimulate follicular development in a female or sperm cell production in a male follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
follicle-stimulating hormone FSH
Growth Hormone GH
Hormone that pancreatic islets of Langerhans secrete to release gluclose from storage Glucagon
Any one of a group of hormones that the adrenal cortex secretes to influence carbohydrates, fat, and protien metabolism glucocorticoid
Hormone that stimulates activity in gonads gonadotropin
Hormone that the anterior pituitary secretes to promote growth of the organism: Somatotropin Growth Hormone (GH)
An enzyme that activates a precursor form of another enzyme by adding a phosphate group Kinase
Process of child birth Labor
Production of milk by mammary glands Lactation
Luteinizing Hormone LH
Hormone that the anterior pituitary secretes to control formation of corpus luteum in females and testosterone secretion in males Luteinizing Hormone (LH; ICSH in Males)
Hormone that the pineal gland secretes Melatonin
Reoccurring chnages in uterine lining of a woman of reproductive age due to cycling hormones Menstrual Cycle
Shedding of blood and other tissue from uterine lining at end of female reproductive cycle Menstuation
Hormones that the adrenal cortex secretes to influence electrolyte concentrations in body fluids Mineralocorticoid
Receptor sensitive to chages in osmotic pressure of body fluids osmoreceptor
Hormone that the posterior pituitary releases to contract smooth muscles in the uterus and mammary glands Oxytocin
Small endocrine glands embedded in posterior thyroid gland parathyroid glands
Hormone that parathyroid glands secrete to help regulate level of blood calcium and phosphate ions Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Structure that attaches the fetus to the uterine wall, providing for delivery of nutrients to and removal of wastes from the fetus Placenta
Lobe of pituitary gland the secretes Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin) Posterior pituitary
PRL Prolactin
Hormone that the anterior pituitary secretes to stimulate milk production in mammary glands Prolactin (PRL)
Group of compounds with powerful hormonelike effects prostaglandins
Parathyroid Hormone PTH
Factor capable of stimulating a stress response Stressor
Group of peptides that the tymus gland secretes to increase production of certian types of white blood cells Thymosins
Glandular organ in mediastium behind sternum and between lungs thymus
One hormone that the thyroid gland secretes Thyroxine
Type of thyroid hormone Triiodothyronine
Hormone whose target tissue is an endocrine gland Tropic Hormone
When the volume of water entering the body is equal to the volume leaving it Water Balance
Nervous System neurons release neurotransmitter.
Endocrine System Hormones released into bloodstream
Endocrine glands have no ducts (ductless).
Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts, Example: sweat glands, salivary glands, and the liver
Cyclic Amp (cAMP) serve as the second messenger for? Nonsteroidal Hormones
Receptors located on nucleus are for? Steroid Hormones
Negative Feedback Systems are used by the endocrine system how? Regulate Hormone Secretion
Prostaglandins ( Tissue hormones) Influence? Respirations, Blood pressure, GI secretions, Inflammation, Reproductive system
The endocrine system consists of glands that? release chemicals into the blood
Steroid hormones have hormone receptors in the? nucleus of the cell
deep in the cranial cavity? Location of Pituitary gland
Anterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland Controls? hormones of hypothalamus
Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland Controls? Nerve reponses of hypothalamus
Posterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland consists of? nerve fibers hypothalamus
Anterior Lobe of Pituitary Gland consists of? glandular epithelial tissue
produces estrogen and progesterone? Ovaries
produces testosterone Testes
Injury to the posterior pituitary can cause_____ which can result in 25L of clear urine daily? diabetes insipidus,
Thyroid Gland Secretes? Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), Calcitonin
Calcitonin in the blood does what? Lowers blood levels of calcium, Inhibit bone reabsorption, Increase Kidneys’ excretion
Symptoms of Grave's Disease Hyperthyroidism: protruding eyes, Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland (results from low dietary intake of iodine).
Symptoms of Cretinism Only in adolescents: Low metabolic rate, Mental retardation, Retarded growth/ Sexual development
Functions of the Parathyroid Gland Stimulates osteoclasts to increase their breakdown, Increases blood calcium, Calcitonin and PTH are antagonist
increases the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidney? ADH does this
decrease in the blood concentration of calcium? Calcitonin does this
has the opposite effect of Calcitonin? parathyroid hormone does this
Frontal Lobe Function Thought Memory and Behaviour
Parietal Lobe Function Language and Touch
Temporal Lobe Function Hearing, Learning, and emotions
Occipital Lobe Function Visual Processing
Cerebellum Function Balance and coordination
Brain Stem Function Respiration, heart rate, and temperature
“fight or flight” response by CNS is caused by? Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Secreted by hormones of the adrenal Medulla
Bloating due to water retention can be caused by? Mineralocorticoids: Influences mineral salt metabolism in the blood
Hormone that causes kidney's to Conserve Na+ ions. Excrete K+ ions? Aldosterone (the chief mineralcorticoid):
Adrenal Cortex- Outer Zone Cells secrete? Mineralocorticoids such as Aldosterone
Adrenal Cortex- Middle Zone Cells Secrete? Glucocorticoid: Cortisol or hydrocortisone (the chief glucocorticoid)
Effects of Glucocorticoid Increase gluconeogenesis, Decreased immunity and allergic response, Accelerate recovery from inflammation
Adrenal Cortex- Inner Zone Cells Secrete? Adrenal sex hormones
What do Adrenal sex hormones do? Males hormones (adrenal androgens), Stimulate the female sex drive
Addison's Disease Symptoms Decreased Glucocorticoids and minineral corticoids, decreased blood sodium, high K+, hypoglycemia, dehydration, low BP, Increased skin pigmentation
Cushing's Syndrome is caused by? adrenal cortical hormones
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms Elevated Glucocorticoids and minineral corticoids, Retain sodium, Redistribution of fat, Moon face, Masculinizing effects in females
Action of the Pancreas? Secretes hormones as an endocrine gland. Secretes digestive juices to the digestive tract as an exocrine gland.
Antagonist of Insulin Glucagon
Sugar in Blood is stored where? The Liver
Which Feedback System involves Insulin? Negative Feedback System
Pancreatic Islet of Langerhan Alpha cells release glucagon. Beta cells release insulin.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes, Usually appears before age 20, Autoimmune disease
Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Give insulin via injection, Transplantation of Islet cells.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Non-insulin dependent diabetes: β cells produce insulin, Usually overweight
Treatment Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Controlling diet. Exercising. Maintaining a desirable body weight
Location of Pineal Gland near third ventricle of the brain
Pineal Gland Functions Produces Melatonin, Regulates bodies internal clock, May regulate onset of puberty and menstrual cycle
Thymus Gland is composed of? lymphocytes (Whit Blood Cells)
Thymus Gland Releases _____________ which provides________? Thymosin = immunity
Placenta as Temporary endocrine gland produces? estrogen, progesterone, and gonadotropin
Glucagon does what? accelerates liver glycogenolysis
Estrogen is Secreted by? The Ovary
The hormone that helps regulate the body’s biological clock is? Melatonin is produced in large quantities in response to darkness
A disease that destroys myelin in the spinal cord will directly affect which of the following cells? Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the CNS
functions of neuroglia are? phagocytosis, providing physical support for neurons, supplying nutrients to neurons
The division of the nervous system that connects body parts with the central nervous system is the? the peripheral nervous system includes all pathways that carry information into and out of the CNS
The somatic nervous system carries? voluntary motor commands out of the CNS
The integrative function of the nervous system is directly involved in? making conscious decisions
Neurons have a special area where a nerve impulse begins called the? The trigger zone starts a nerve impulse called the action potential.
structural classifications of neurons are? unipolar neurons, multipolar neurons, ar neurons
It produces action potentials? sodium-potassium pump
Action Potential Begins? when the membrane depolarizes.
sodium-potassium pumps Maintain? Resting Membrane potential
What is a characteristics regarding the strength of an action potential? all-or-none response, Axons conduct impulses by the all-or-none principle
Transmission of impulses across a synapse is made possible by? Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that are released from axons into the synapse, such as acetylcholine
What is the neurotransmitters that is usually excitatory? Acetylcholine is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the body; gamma amino-butyric acid is usually inhibitory.
When impulses from various sources have an additive effect on a neuron, the process is called? Convergence is the bringing together of stimuli
Which component of a reflex arc is located entirely within the central nervous system? Interneurons process or integrate incoming sensory information in the central nervous system
The outer membrane covering the brain is composed of fibrous connective tissues and is called the? The outer layer is the dura mater
Cerebrospinal fluid is mainly found between the? pia mater and arachnoid mater: Most of the CSF is located within the subarachnoid space below the arachnoid mater and above the pia mater.
In the adult, the spinal cord ends? between lumbar vertebrae 1 and 2
If a person has no sensation in the legs, which of the following may be injured or damaged? Ascending tracts carry sensory information to the brain.
What structure connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres? The corpus callosum is the largest interconnecting fiber commissure in the cerebrum.
Which of the following is involved in hearing a phone ring? The temporal lobe contains centers for hearing.
Recognizing your Mother would happen in which Lobe? Recognition of people and objects occurs in the occipital lobe
Functions of Planning a party would happen in which Lobe? frontal lobe association areas.
The pathologic movements of Parkinson and Huntington disease are due to damage in the? The basal nuclei modify muscle movements and degenerate in these diseases.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the The choroid plexuses are blood vessels that secrete the CSF.
The diencephalon contains all of the following structures thalamus, optic chiasma, pineal gland, and hypothalamus.
The part of the brain stem that contains centers for cardiovascular control and sneezing is the? The medulla oblongata contains a number of centers that control visceral activities such as breathing and heart rate.
The part of the brain responsible for regulation of sleep and wakefulness is the The reticular formation stimulates arousal
The lobes of the cerebellum are connected by the? The cerebellar hemispheres are connected by the vermis
Membrane between the vermis falx cerebelli is a membrane between them.
The cranial nerves that control movement of the eyes are? oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens
The cranial nerve responsible for equilibrium and hearing is the? The auditory (VIII) or vestibulocochlear nerve is for hearing and balance.
The only cranial nerve that innervates structures below the neck is the? The vagus (X) nerve innervates almost all visceral organs.
The part of the nervous system that is most active when the body is at rest is the? Parasympathetic impulses cause digestion and a state of rest to occur
Release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron is dependent upon? diffusion of calcium ions into the cell.
What Happens when Calcium enters a neuron? synaptic vesicles fuse with the membrane and release neurotransmitter into the cleft.
Sensory impulses are carried by? Afferent Fibers
Motor impulses that leave the brain are carried by? Efferent Fibers
Neurons that are deprived of oxygen can be irreversibly damaged True: Neurons will die if they are anaerobic for 4-6 minutes.
The amount of change in the resting potential of a cell membrane is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. True: Stimuli alter the resting potential but cannot cause a response unless the threshold for an action potential is reached.
The thicker the nerve? the faster the conduction velocity
Postage stamp like material in th human nose organ of corti
Difference between hormones and prostaglandins Hormones travel, prostaglandins act locally.
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