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Biology 11 Ch12

Grade 11 Biology Ontario Circulatory System

TermDefinition
circulatory system the system that transports blood, nutrients, and waste around the body; includes the heart, and all blood vessels (arteries and veins)
heart the muscular organ that pumps blood via the circulatory system to the lungs and body
blood vessel a hollow tube that carries blood to and from body tissues
blood the bodily fluid in which blood cells are suspended.
open circulatory system a circulatory system in which vessels open to the animal's body cavity (ie. in a grasshopper) There is no difference between interstitial fluid and blood and the circulating mixture is called hemolymph.
closed circulatory system a circulatory system in which the circulating blood in contained in vessels and kept separate from interstitial fluids
pulmonary artery the large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary vein blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the the heart (left atrium)
aorta an artery that carries blood directly from the heart to other arteries heading to body tissues; largest vessel in the body
atrioventricular valve a valve between the ventricle and atrium (tricuspid - right & mitral/bicuspid - left)
semilunar valve a valve between the ventricles and large arteries (aortic valve & pulmonary valve); carries blood away from heart and prevents backflow
arteries vessels that carry blood away from the heart; small diameter arteries are arterioles; have highly elastic walls
veins vessel that carry blood to the heart; small diameter veins are venules; have thinner walls than arteries and larger inner diameter with one way valves to prevent backflow
capillaries network of one cell thick vessels where gases, nutrients, wastes and other materials are transferred from blood to tissues cells, and from cells to blood
blood composed of plasma (water, gases, proteins, sugars, vitamins, minerals and waste) and blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets)
sinoatrial (SA) node the modified heart cells in the right atrium that spontaneously generate the rhythmic signals that cause the atria to contract (start of heartbeat)
atrioventricular (AV) node the specialized heart cells near the junction of the atria and ventricles that cause the ventricles to contract (strong contraction of heartbeat)
blood pressure the force that blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels
systolic pressure the pressure generated in the circulatory system when the ventricles contract and push blood from the heart (higher pressure than diastole).
diastolic pressure the pressure generated in the circulatory system when the ventricles fill with blood (atria are contracting)
sphygmanometer a medical device for measuring blood pressure
stethoscope a medical device for listening to body sounds including the heartbeat and breath sounds.
arteriosclerosis a general term to describe several disorders in which the walls of the arteries thicken and lose elastic properties (aka. hardening of the arteries, atherosclerosis); plaque forms in vessels; can lead to heart attack or obstruction of other key arteries
aneurym is a bulge in an artery due to a weakened area of the arterial wall which is at risk of bursting. Internal bleeding can lead to death.
arrhythmia an irregularity in the speed or rhythm of the heart beat; can cause insufficient blood supply to brain or other organs. Treated with a pacemaker.
stroke when arteries supplying the blood vessels of the brain are damaged. Ischemic stroke is a blockage and brain tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients. Hemorrhagic stroke is a bleed into brain tissue.
Created by: su11armstrong