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68C Exam 3

integumentary system, skin hygiene, skeletal system, Muscular System, Mechanics

Cold (Tepid) Bath Bath with a water temperature of 98.6 degrees
Warm Bath Bath with a water temperature of 109.4 degrees
Hot Bath Bath with a water temperature of 113-115 degrees
Canthus Corner of the eye
Washing of the eye Clean from inner to outer Canthus.
Chux Waterproof Pad
Cerumen Ear Wax
Ear Care Never insert an object into the ear canal, including
Perineal Care Allow Patient to clean self if possible, use Humility and Empathy
Social Practices of Hygiene Considering family customs (such as hygiene product choices, amount of bathing, sharing bath water), age, Friends(Peer Pressure)
Body Image of Hygiene Cosiderations of Physical appearance and limitations when bathing
Socioeconomic Status of Hygiene Considerations of Bathing resources
Knowledge of Hygeine Considerations if person has learned the conditions
Personal Preference of Hygiene Individuals choice of soaps, deodarants, etc.
Physical Condition of Hygiene Patient may not have energy or ability to bathe and cleanse themselves
Cultural Variables of Hygiene Bathing practices vary from levels of modesty and practices. Regional or Belief Systems.
Pressure Ulcer - Stage I sores are not open wounds. The skin may be painful, but it has no breaks or tears. The skin appears reddened and does not blanch (lose color briefly when you press your finger on it and then remove your finger). In a dark-skinned person, the area may appe
Pressure Ulcer - Stage II the skin breaks open, wears away, or forms an ulcer, which is usually tender and painful. The sore expands into deeper layers of the skin. It can look like a scrape (abrasion), blister, or a shallow crater in the skin. Sometimes this stage looks like a bl
Pressure Ulcer - Stage III the sore gets worse and extends into the tissue beneath the skin, forming a small crater. Fat may show in the sore, but not muscle, tendon, or bone.
Pressure Ulcer - Stage IV the pressure sore is very deep, reaching into muscle and bone and causing extensive damage. Damage to deeper tissues, tendons, and joints may occur.
Pressure Ulcer Risk Factors Bed or Chair Confinement, Inability to Move, Loss of bowel or bladder control, poor nutrition
Pressure Ulcer decubitus ulcers or bedsores, occur due to pressure applied to soft tissue resulting in completely or partially obstructed blood flow to the soft tissue. antiinflammatory drugs.
Diaphoresis Sweating
Circumorbital Circular Area around the eye
Purposes of Bathing Clean the skin, promote comfort, stimulate circulation, remove waste.
Oral Hygiene Care of the Mouth, prevention of gingivitis and peridontitis
Hair Hygiene Hair Care - Washing the hair, improves morale and self-image
Contraindications for shaving Diabetes, Peripheral vascular disease, Chemotherapy, High Doses of Aspirin, Immuno-compromised, Electric Razor for depressed or disoriented patients
Influencing Factors of Bathing Social Practices, Body Image, Socioeconomic Status, Knowledge, Personal Preference, Physical Condition, Cultural Variables.
Foot Hygiene Care of the feet, soak for comfort, Assess Circulation, Diabetic Patients
Nail Hygiene Care of the Nails (Hand and Foot), prevents spread of infection. Use Clippers, emery board, push cuticles back.
Use of Nail Clippers Tool for Nail Hygiene - trim straight accross and even with the tip of fingers
Use of Emerey Board Tool for Nail Hygiene - shapes nails, helps prevent in-grown nails.
Use of Orangewood stick Tool for Nail Hygiene - Pushes cuticles back
Diabetic Patient Hygiene Patient Contraindicated for nail trimming with clippers and shaving.
Adult Hygiene Considerations Keep Room Warm, Drape for Modesty, Bathes too frequently, need special skin care products, specific foot care, timing of shaving
Medical Asepsis Use of Clean technique, gross cleaning
Unconscious Patient pressure ulcer prevention Change position every
Hygiene Care Types Early Morning Care, A.M (Morning Care), Afternoon Care, Hour-of-sleep care, Linen
Patient Early Morning Hygienic Care Offer bed pan/urinal, Wash Face/hands, clean and clear over bed tables, provide oral care, prepare for tests or surgery
Patient A.M. Morning Hygienic Care Offer Bed Pan/Urinal, provide oral care, Bathe, Back rub, Shave and hair care, nail care, dress, straighten room
Patient Afternoon Hygienic Care Care after diagnostic or spacial test, Offer bed pan/urinal, provide oral care
Patient (HS)Hour-of-Sleep Hygienic Care Offer Bed pan/Urinal, wash hands/face, provide oral care, change into nightclothes, give back rub, help position patient in bed, straighten the patient's room
Pattient Teaching Topics Initiated, Independence, Decreased Sensation, Skin Inspection, Perineum, Trapeze bar, washing hands, Family Members, Sunscreen, Brush teeth, rinse mouth, Carbohydrate reduction, Dry lips, Hair Care, Safety, foot care, eye care, ear care.
Female Parineum Hygiene Clean area from front to back
Male Parineum Hygiene Clean entire area to include retraction of the foreskin if neccessary.
Oral Infection Signs/Symptoms Red Areas in Oral Cavity, Whaite Patchy Areas, Bleeding Lesions
Therapeutic Bath Types Medicinal Quality, Whirlpool Bath, Starch/Oatmeal Bath, Sitz Bath, Body Soaks, Cooling Sponge Baths
Back Care/Rub Promotes relaxation, Relieves Muscle Tissue, Stimulates circulation, Communicates caring, Fosters trust, Assess the back
Sitz Bath Moist heat to the perineal/ anal area, promotes healing, relieves pain
Body Soaks Cleanse open wounds, apply medicated solutions
Cooling Sponge Bath use tepid water, 98.6 degrees, brings down fever, need an order to appy
Whirlpool bath heat of the water, agitation action, massages the skin
Starch or Oatmeal baths used with bath oil, patient with severe dermatitis, skin is patted dry so serve, ending are not stimulated.
Treatment of Pressure Ulcers Surgical asepsis, Appropriate dressing Debridement, Assessment & documentation, Clean with NS, Assess for allergies, Hydrocolloid dressings if uninfected, Proper irrigation, Wet-to-damp dressing
Nursing Interventions for Prevention Skin observation, Change position,Heels off bed, Avoid position on trochanter, Trapeze or lift sheet, Pressure-reducing devices, Move in chair, Massage outside red area,Clean incontinent pts, Proper fitting devices, Avoid burns, Good techniques, Adequate
Nursing Diagnoses Self-care deficit r/t bathing/hygiene, Self-care deficit r/t grooming, Impaired physical mobility, Risk for impaired skin integrity, Sensory/perceptual alteration, Altered nutrition, less than body requirements, Impaired tissue integrity
Bone Types Long, short, Flat, Irregular
Diaphysis Shaft of the long bone
True Ribs Vertebrosternal - 7 pairs directly anterior of the clavicle. Costal cartilages of each rib join directly to the sternum.
Number of ribs Thoracic Cage, 24, 12 pairs True 1-7 False 8-10 Floating 11-12
False Ribs Anterior Ribs, Pairs 8-12, cartilges of the upper three false ribs (vertebrochondral) join the chartilages of the 7th rib.
Floating Ribs Most Anterior pairs, 11 and 12, No Cartilaginous attachment to the sternum,.Bears a shaft, a head, and tubercules which articulate with the vertebrae
Endochondral Bones 95% of bones made from hyline cartilage.
Number of bones in skull 22 (8 Cranial, 14 facial bones)
Thoreeacic Cage Supports the pectoral girdle and upper limbs, protects visceral organs ans plays a role in breathing
Sternum Flat elongated bone, located in anterior portion of thoracic cage.
Sternum delopment parts Manibrium, Corpus Sternum, Xiphoid Process
total number of vertebrae 26
Corpus Sternum Middle Portion of Sernum
Manubrium Top Portion of sternum. Articulates with the clavicles by facets on its superior border
Xiphoid Process Bottom portion of sternum
Pectoral Girdle Composed of 2 clavicles, 2 scapulae, incomplete ring that supports the upper limbs and provides attachment for several muscles that move.
Clavicle Location Horizontally located between the manubrium and the scapulae, Superior Posterior part of appendicular skeleton
Clavicle Function Holds shoulders in place and provides attachments for the muscles of the upper limbs, chest and back.
Scapulae Broad Triangular bones, superior,anterior portion of pectoral girdle, included in Appendicular Skeleton
Parts of Scapulae Acromion Process, Coracoid Proiccess, Glenoid Cavity
Upper limb Provides framework of arm, wrist, and hand. Provides attachments for muscles and functions as levers that move the limb and its parts
Humerus Location Extends from the glenoid cavity of the scapula of the elbow
Humerus size 2nd largest bone in the body
Humerous movement Articulates with the radius ans ulna at the elbow
Radius Extends from the elbow to the wrist, and crosses over the ulna when the hand is turned so that the palm faces backward
Radius Movement Articulates with the humerous, ulna, and wrist
Ulna Movement Distal end articulates with radius laterally and with a disk of fibrocartilage inferiorly. Proximal end articulates with the humerus
Ulna Bone that overlaps the end of the humerus posteriorly
Amount of hand bones 8 Carpals 5 metacarpals 5 sets of phalanges
Synarthroses Immovable Joint
Amphiarthroses Slightly movable Joint
Diarthroses Freely Movable joint
Fibrous connections between bones that are held together by fibrous connective tissue that includes many collagen fibres.
Cartilaginous connections between bones that are held tightly together by cartilage - specifically either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage.
Synovial Joint Most common joints in body have a synovial cavity between the articulating bones. This cavity is filled with synovial fluid that reduces friction at the joint, enabling the articulating bones to move freely.
Synovial Membrane vs. Bursa Sac secretes synovial fluid that lubricates the joints vs. fluid filled sac often located between the skin and underlying bony prominences.
Apocrine gland -- type of gland whose secretions contain parts of secretory cells.
Arrector pili muscle smooth muscle in skin associated with a hair follicle
Basement membrane layer of extracellular matrix that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissue.
Collagen protein in connective tissue and in bone matrix
Cutaneous pertaining to the skin.
Dermis thick layer of the skin beneath the epidermis
Eccrine sweat gland that maintains body temperature
Epidermis outer stratified squamous epithelial layer of the skin
Hair follicle tubelike depression in the skin in which a hair develops
Integumentary system – the skin and accessory organs
Keratin protein in epidermis, hair and nails.
Keratinization process by which cells form fibrils of keratin protein and harden
Melanin dark pigment normally found in skin and hair
Melanocytes melanin-producing cell
Sebaceous gland skin gland that secretes sebum
Subcutaneous beneath the skin
Sweat (sudoriferous) gland exocrine gland in skin that secretes a mixture of water, salt, urea and other bodily wastes.
Actin contractile protein found in the THIN myofilaments of skeletal muscle?
All or None response reaction of a muscle fiber to contract fully or not at all?
Antagonists muscles that have opposing actions
Aponeuroses broad fibrous sheets of connective tissue
Atrophy wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of a part
Bursa a synovial fluid filled sac located between some tendons and bones, making movement easier
Hypertrophy increase in size, structure, or function
Isometric type of muscle contraction in which muscle does not shorten and no movement is produced
Isotonic type of muscle contraction in which the muscle length changes, producing movement of a joint
Prime Mover main muscle responsible for producing a particular movement
Sarcomere basic functional or contractile unit of skeletal muscle
Synergists muscles that assist the prime mover with movement
Tenosynovitis inflammation of the tendon sheath
skeletal, cardiac, smooth three types of muscle tissue
cardiac muscle muscle tissue only found in the heart
intercalated disks unique dark bands found in cardiac muscle tissue
smooth muscle tissue involuntary tissue, lines hollow organs, single nucleus, no striations
skeletal muscle tissue striated, voluntary, multiple nuclei, makes up 40-50% of body weight
origin, insertion, body 3 parts of skeletal muscle
origin part of skeletal muscle that attaches to the bone and remains relatively stationary
insertion (point of insertion) part of skeletal muscle that is the point of attachment to the bone that moves when a muscle contracts
body (Muscle) main part of the muscle
bursae small synovial-lined sacs fluid between some tendons and underlying bones
tendons structure that connects muscle to bone
ligaments structure that connects bone to bone
movement, posture/muscle tone, heat production 3 primary functions of skeletal muscle
prime mover muscle whose contraction is mainly responsible for producing a given movement
synergist muscle whose contractions help the prime mover prodcue a given movement
antagonist muscle whose actions oppose the action of a prime mover in any given moment
tonic contraction this produces no movement of body parts, only a few of a muscle's fibers shorten at one time, maintain muscle tone called posture
ATP repeated muscular contraction depletes cellular ______ stores and outstrips the ability of the blood supply to replenish O2 and nutrients
oxygen debt term used to describe the metabolic effort required to burn excess lactic acid that may accumulate during prolonged periods of exercise
motor neuron specialized nerve that transmits an impluse to a muscle, causing contraction
neuromuscular junction ecialized point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates
threshold stimulus the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract
all or none once stimulated by a threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely, this is a response called
true or false: different muscle fibers in a muscle are controlled by different motor units having different threshold-stimulus levels true
twitch (Contractions) contractions are quick, jerky movements and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity
tetanic (Contractions) contractions are sustained and steady muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession
mastication Muscle contractions that produce chewing movements
orbicularis oris facial muscle that allows you to pucker the lips
orbicularis oculi facial muscle surrounding the eye
frontal muscle facial muscle that allows you to raise your eyebows and frown
zygomaticus facial muscle that elevates the corners of the mouth and lips
masseter facial muscle that elevates the mandible
temporal facial muscle that assists masseter to close jaw
sternocleidomastoid cervical muscle that flexes to move head
trapezius elevates shoulder and extends head
latissimus dorsi extends the upper arm
pectoralis major flexes upper arm
deltoid abducts the upper arm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm
triceps brachii extends the forearm
intercostal and diaphragm respiratory muscles
abdominal muscles abdominal muscles
quadricepts femoris group rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
dermis The thick inner layer of the skin composed mainly of fibrous connective tissue.
Sebaceous Gland Skin gland that secretes sebum (oil)
Pseudostratified Tissue Single layer of tall cells that wedge together to appear as if there are two are more layers.
Where can you find pseudostratified tissue? Surface lining on the trachea
What is the function of pseudostratified tissue? Protection
Fibroblasts Type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen.The most common type of connective tissues.
Neuron A nerve cell.
Mitosis Division of a somatic cell nucleus in the process of forming two genetically identical cells.
Diffusion Movement of carbon dioxide out of all cells.
Cutaneous pertaining to the skin.
Piloerection goosebumps or chicken skin
Healing of an Epidermal Wound Shallow break in skin which results in rapid mytosis.
Stratified Transitional Tissue Many layers of varying transitional shapes capable of stretching.
Adipose tissue helps conserve_____and to store____. heat and to store energy
Collagenous Cells Thick threads of protien collagen grouped in long parallel bundles. Flexible but only elastic. Provides great tensile strength.
Where can you find Stratified Transitional Tissue? In the urinary bladder.
Filtration Movement of small molecules through a membrane by a hydrostatic pressure while large molecules are restricted.
Inflammation Dilation of blood vessels in affected tissues.Skin is reddened, swollen, and painful to touch.
Organic molecule that stores and releases energy which may be used in cellular processes. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Single layer of tall narrow cells. Simple Columnar Tissue
Process by which cells form fibrils of Keratin and harden. Keratinization
Respond to an elevated body temperature, environmental heat or physical exercise.Common on the forehead, neck, and back. Eccrine Glands
Covers body surfaces & organs. Forms inner lining of body cavities & lines hollow organs.Lacks blood vessels. Cells are tightly packed. Epitheal Tissue
A process in which a cell directs the contents of secretory vessicles out of the cell membrane. Ex: hormones Exocytosis
Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solids. (literally cell eating) Phagocytosis
The visible part of hair is called what? shaft
Process by which a cell engulfs droplets of fluid from its surroundings.(cell drinking) Pinocytosis
Layer of extracellular matrix that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying connective tissues. basement Membrane
The skin and accessory organs. Integumentary System
Which gland is responsible for sweat? Sudoriferous gland
Composed of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue; lies beneath the dermis. Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
Cells that are specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids. Glandular Tissue
Smooth muscle in skin associated with a hair follicle. Arector Pili Muscle
Microscopic hairlike processes on the exposed surfaces of certain epithelial cells. Cilia
chondrocyte Cartilage cell
Melanin producing cell. Melanocytes
Tubelike depression in the skin in which a hair develops. Hair Follicle
Disintrigation of a cell. Lyse
Outer epithelial layer of the skin. Epidermis
ankyl/o crooked, bent, or stiff
arth/o joint
chondr/o cartilage
cost/o rib
desis surgical fixation of bone or joint
crani/o skull
kyph/o hump
lord/o bent backward
lysis loosening or setting free, breaking down or destruction and may indicate either a pathologic state or a therapeutic procedure
myel/o bone marrow or spinal cord
oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o act as the framework for the body, protect the internal organs, and store the mineral calcium
poietic pertaining to formation
scoli/o curved
spondyl/o vertebrate (pre)
bursitis is an inflammation of a bursa that is typically caused by repetitive movements
callus a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing; the bulging deposit that forms around the area of the back in a fractured bone
crepitus is the crackling sensation that is felt and heard when the ends of a broken bone move together
fontanel on a baby's head, known as the soft spot
kyphosis abnormal increase in the outward curuature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side; also known as humpback or dowager's hump
osteoarthritis form of arthritis commonly associated with aging; also known as wear
rheumatoid arthritis also known as RA,is an autoimmune disorder
orthopedist orthopedic surgeon
rickets bone disorder caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiencies in early childhood
sacroiliac is the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and the ilium
subluxation partial displacement of a bone from its joint
vertebral column consists of 26 Amount vertebrae
5 major functions of the skeletal system support, movement, protection, storage, hematopoiesis(blood cell formation)
4 major classifications of bone, according to overall structure Short, Flat, Irregular, and Long. Some also recognize Sesamoid(round) as a 5th category
diaphysis the shaft; the hollow tube of hard compact bone
medullary cavity hollow area inside diaphysis that contains yellow marrow
epiphyses ends of the bone; spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
articular cartilage covers epiphyses and functions as a cushion
periosteum strong membrane convering bone everywhere except at joint surfaces
endosteum lines medullary cavity
two major types of connective tissue in the skeletal system bone and cartilage
bone cells osteocytes
cartilage cells chondrocytes
bone-forming cells osteoblasts
bone-resorbing cells osteoclasts
the human skeleton has two divisions. what are they? Axial skeleton and Appendicular skeleton
hat bones are in the Axial skeleton? How many? skull, cranium, ear bones, face, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, hyoid bone. 80 bones.
what bones are in the Appendicular skeleton? How many? 8 bones. sphenoid, temporal(x2), ethmoid, parietal(x2), occipital, frontal. *(STEPOF)*
How many bones form the face? What are they? 14 bones. maxilla (2), nasal(x2), zygomatic(x2), lacrimal(x2), palatine(x2), inferior nasal concha(x2), vomer, mandible. *(My Zoro Likes Punching My Very Nose In)
How many ear bones are there? What are they? 6 bones. malleus(x2), incus(x2), stapes(x2)
how many bones are in the spine(vertebral column)? What are they? 26 bones. cervical(x7), thoracic(x12), lumbar(x5), sacrum, coccyx.
how many pairs of ribs are there? what are they? 12 pairs. 1-7 pairs are True Ribs, 8,9,10 pairs are False Ribs, 11,12 are Floating ribs
what are sinuses? spaces or cavities within some of the cranial bones
what are paranasal sinuses? sinuses that have openings into the nose
what are sutures? immovable joints
what are the three major types of joints? synarthroses/no movement(FIBROUS); amphiarthroses/slight movement(CARTILAGINOUS); diarthroses/free movement (SYNOVIAL)
what are ligaments? cords or bands made of the same strong fibrous ocnnective tissue as the joint capsule that lash two bones together
how many bones are in one hand? 27 bones. 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges
how many bones are in one foot? 26 bones. 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
what are the different types of diarthrotic joints? ball and socket, hinge, pivot, saddle, pivot, gliding, condyloid
what does the synovial membrane do? it lines joint capsules and secretes a lubricating fluid (synovial fluid)
How do intramembranous bones originate? they originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissue
how do endochondral bones form? they begin as masses of cartilage that bone tissue later replaces.
The movement that results in your arm moving in a complete circle circumduction
Palm facing down Pronation
Palm facing up Supination
Toes pointed. (Ballerina toes) Plantar flexion
Moving a part away from the midline abduction
Moving a part toward the midline Adduction
Turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially inversion
Turning the foot so the plantar surface faces laterally everesion
Extension of the parts at a joint beyond the anatomical position hyperextension
Movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin dorsiflexion
Raises corner of the mouth zygomaticus
closes eye orbicularis oculi
closes and protrudes lips orbicularis oris
elevates mandible masseter
Pulls head to one side, pulls head toward chest, or raises sternum sternocleidomastoid
Flexes forearm at elbow and rotates hand laterally biceps brachii
extends forearm at elbow triceps brachii
Hair Follicle tube-like depression in the skin in which a hair develops
Process by which older cells from fibrils of keratin protein harden kerinization
melanin-producing cell melanocytes
Normal movement that any joint is capable of making Range of motion
Dizzines Vertigo
Dense bone Compact bone
Conduction Movement of body heat into the molecules of cooler objects in contact with the body surface
Sweat Gland that maintains body temperature Eccrine Gland
The thick layer of the skin beneath the epidermis Dermis
Gland the skin that secretes sebum Sebaceous Gland
Purposeless Movement Twitch
The deepest Layer of the Epidermis in which the cells Divide, Stratum Basale Stratum Germinativum
Beneath the skin Subcutaneous
The transmission of the heat from one substance to another through the circulation of heated air particles Convection
Changing a liquid into a gas Evaporation
Melanin-Producing Cell Melanocyte
Dark Pigment found in skin and hair Melanin
A pouchlike depression or cavity Follicle
Mainly composed of fat, this Loose layer is directly Beneath the dermis; Subcutaneous Hypodermis
Mucosa Mucous Membrane
Oily Secretion of the Sebaceous Glands Sebum
Membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body Serous Membrane
Outer Horny Layer of the Epidermis Stratum Corneum
A form of energy that includes visible light, ultraviolet light, and X rays; the means by which body heat is lost in the form of infrared rays Radiation
Membrane that forms the inner lining of the capsule of a freely movable joint synovial membrane
A heat moves form of radiaition energy, with wavelengths longer than visible light, by which heat moves from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings Infrared Ray
Pertaining to the skin Cutaneaous
A limb; an arm or leg Extremity
Outer Epithelial layer of the skin Epidermis
Tubelike Depression in the skin which a hair develops Hair Follicle
Bluish skin coloration due to decreased blood oxygen concentration Cyanosis
Smooth muscle in the skin associated with a hair follicle Arrector Pili Muscle
A tissue response to streaa that is characterized by dilation of blood vessels and an accumulation of fluid in the affected region Inflammation
Twitch A Brief muscular Contraction followed by relaxation
Protien that blocks muscle contraction until calcium ions are present Tropomyosin
A gradual increase in contractile strength of a muscle in response to repeated stimuli of the same intensity Staircase effect
End of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part Origin
The outer Sheath of connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle Epimysium
A recording of a muscular contraction Myogram
A portion of the respiratory control center in the medulla Rhythmicity Area
The cytoplasm within a muscle fiber Sarcoplasm
The amount of oxygen that must be supplied following physical exercise to convert accumulated lactic acid to gluclose Oxygen Debt
A mass of merging cells Syncytium
Increase in number of motor units activated as intensity of stimulation increases Recruitment
slow-contracting postural muscles that contain abundant myoglobin Red Muscle
Phenomenon in which the dgree of change in membrane potential is directly proportional to the intensity of stimulation Summation
level of potential at which an action potential or nerve impulse is produced Threshold Potential
A muscle biochemical that stores energy Creatine Phosphate
A sustained muscle contraction of increasing strength in response to input from many motor units Multiple motor unit summation
Membranous network of channels and tubules within a muscle fiber, corresponding to the endoplasmic reticulum of other cells Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The forearm Antebrachium
Enzyme that causes ATP Molecules to release the energy stored in the terminal bonds Atpase
A protien comprising only 0.002% of the total protein in skeletal muscle that supports the cell membrane. its absence causes muscular dystrophy Dystrophin
A sheetlike tendon by which certain muscles are attached ot other parts Aponeurosis
Muscular contraction in which the muscle shortens isotonic contraction
Time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of a response in a muscle fiber Latent Pariod
A neuron that transmits impulses from the central nervous system to an effector Motor Neuron
Sheath of connective tissue that encloses a bundle of striaited muscle fibers Perimysium
Time period following stimulation during which a neuron or muscle fiber will not respond to a stimulus Refractory Period
Muscles contract when the thin (Actin) and thick (Myosin) filaments move past each other shortening the skeletal muscle cells Sliding Filament Theory
A wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue Atrophy
A narrow band of tendinous connective tissue in the midline of the anterior abdominal wall Linea Alba
Impulse that travels along the sarcolemma to the transverse tubules Muscle impulse
Rhythmic waves of muscular contraction inthe walls of certian tubular organs Peristalsis
A narrow extracellular space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons Synaptic Cleft
A cordlike or bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that connect a muscle to a bone tendon
Membranous channel that extends inward from a muscle fiber membrane and passes through the fiber Transverse Tubule
protien that functions with tropomyosin to block muscle contraction until calcium ioins are present Troponin
Fast-Contracting Skeletal Muscle White Muscle
The Sheath of connective tissue surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber Endomysium
Uncoordinated contraction of muscle fibers Fibrillation
A protien in a muscle fiber that, together with myosin, is responsible for contraction and relaxation Actin
Contractile fibers within muscle cells Myofibril
The contraction of some fibers in skeletal muscle at any given time Muscle Tone
Chemical secreted by the end of an axon that stimulates a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse Neurotransmitter
Loss of ability to control voluntary muscular movements usually due to disorder of the nervous system Paralysis
The cell Membrane of a muscle fiber Sarcolemma
Site of union between a motor neuron axon and a muscle fiber Myoneural Junction
A circular muscle that closes an opening or the lumen of a tubular structure Sphincter
A muscle that acts in opposition to a prime mover Antagonist
A muscle that is mainly responsible for a particular body movement Prime Mover
A muscle that assits the action of a prime mover Synergist
A pigmented compound in muscle tissue that stores oxygen Myoglobin
A sheet of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle Fascia
A type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at the axon ends of many neurons. It transmits nerve impulses across synapses Acetylcholine
A change in the environmental conditions that is followed by a response by an organism or cell (PL., Stimuli) Stimulus
A protien that, together with actin, produces muscular contraction and relaxation Myosin
The end of a muscle attached to a movable part Insertion
Membranous Boundary between adjacent cardiac muscle cells Intercalated Disk
Specialized portion of a muscle fiber membrane at a neuromuscular junction motor end plate
Point of contact between a nerve and muscle cell Neuromuscular Junction
A space occupied by a group of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves that is enclosed by fasciae Compartment
Phenomenon in which a muscle a fiber completely contracts when it is exposed to s stimulus of threshold strength All-or-None Response
A muscular contraction in which the muscle does not shorten Isometric Contraction
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers associated with it Motor Unit
A continuous, forceful muscular contraction (Tetanic Contraction) without relaxation Tetanus
Chewing Movements Mastication
The level of stimulation that must be exceeded to ellicit a nerve impulse or a muscle contraction Threshold Stimulus
The structural and functional unit of a myofibril Sarcomere
A pulley-shaped strucuture Trochles
A layer of fibrocartilage located between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae Intervertebral disk
Dense tissue in which cells are arranged in haversian systems with no apparent spaces Compact bone
A depression in a bone or other part Fossa
Abnormal Lateral curvature of the vertebral column Scoliosis
Pertaining to the hip Coxal
Portion of the skeleton that provides support and attachment for the arms Pectoral Girdle
A round bone in tendons adjacent to joints Sesamoid Bone
Large Enough to be seen with the unaided eye Macroscopice
An abnormally increased convex curvature in the thoracic portion of the vertebral column Kyphosis
Changing in shape of the fetal skull during birth Molding
Bone that begins as hyaline cartilage that is subsequently replaced by bone tissue Endochondronal Bone
A condition in which bones break easily because calcium is removed from them faster than it is replaced Osteoporosis
Pertaining to the five fused (Pelvic) Vertebrae at the distal end of the spinal column Sacral
The superior appendage consisting of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand Upper Linm
The shaft of a long bone Diaphysis
A transvers channel that connects Haversian Canals within compact bone Volkmann's Canal
Pertaining to the lower, back portion of the head Occipital
A mature bone cell Osteocyte
A tiny pit or depression Fovea
Decomposition of a structure as a result of physiiological activity Resorption
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for the transport pf oxygen Hemoglobin
One of the bones of coxal bone or hipbone Ilium
Bones of the wrist Carpals
Fat Storage tissue found in the cavities within certian bones Yellow Marrow
Cartilaginous layer within the epiphysis of a long bone that grows Epiphyseal disk
A cell that erodes bone osteoclast
A broad process on a bone Trochanter
Bone Tissue with a latticework structure; Spongy Bone Cancellous Bone
A Ridgelike Projection of a bone Crest
The production of blood and blood cells; hematopiesis Hemopoiesis
Connective tissue that occupies the spaces within bones and includes stem cells Marrow
Bones of the foot between the ankle and toe bones Metatarsals
Hyaline Cartilage that covers the ends of bones in synovial joints Articular Cartilage
Pertaining to the wall of an organ cavity Parietal
The end of a long bone Epiphysis
Opening inthe occipital bone of the skull through which the spinal cord passes Foramen Magnum
The Wrist; the wrist bones as a group Carpus
A rounded process of a bone usually at the articular end Condyle
Bone that forms from the membranelike layers of primitive connective tissue Intramembranous Bone
A projection of a bone located above a Condyle Epicondyle
A Hormone released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that promotes the growth of the organism; GH or SOMATOTROPIN Growth Hormone
Bones of the Hand Between the Wrist and Finger Bones Metacarpals
Extra Fingers or Toes Polydactyly
A break in a bone Fracture
A Passageway or channel, or the external openiong of such a passageway Meatus
An abnormally increased concave curvature in the lumbar portion of the vertebral column Lordosis
Deposition of Calcium Salts in a tissue Calcification
A simple mechanical device consisting of a rod, fulcrum, weigth, and a source of energy that is applied to some point on the rod Lever
An instrument used to measure the density of bone tissue Densitometer
Flat or Platelike Squamous
Bone that consists of bars and plates separated by irregular spaces; cancellous bone Spongy Bone
A small, flattened surface of a bone Facet
Below the Maxilla Submaxillary
Covering of fibrous connective tissue on the surface of a bone Periosteum
An immovable joint, such as that between flat bones of the skull Suture
Branching Bony Plate that separates irregular spaces within Spongy Bone Trabecula
A small, rounded process on a bone Tubercle
Portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the organs of the head, neck, and trunk Axial Skeleton
A bone-forming cell Osteoblast
An elevation or protuberance on a bone Tuberosity
Portion of the skeleton to which the legs are attached Pelvic Girdle
A deficiency of thyroid hormones in an adult Myxedema
An opening, usually in a bone or membrane (PL., Foramina) Foramen
Inferior Appendage Consisting of the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot Lower Limb
The production of blood and blood cells. Synonomous with Hemopoiesis Hematopoiesis
Cavity within the Diaphysis of a long bone containing marrow Medullary Cavity
The formation of bone tissue Ossification
Tissue Lining the Medullary Cavity within a bone Endosteum
Bony ring formed by the sacrum a coxal bones Pelvis
Membranous region between certain cranial bones in the skull of a fetus or infant Fontanel
A bone of a finger or toe (PL., Phalanges) Phalanx
Blood Cell - Forming tissue in spaces within bones Red Marrow
The study of equipment design to make workplace equipment more comfortable for people so that they are more efficient in their work environment. EX. USE OF MECHANICAL LIFT ERGONOMICS
abduction movement of an extremity away from the midline of the body.
adduction movement of an extremity toward the midline of the body.
alignment relationship of various body parts to one another.
how many inches apart should your base of support be? 16-18 inches
body mechanics physiologic study of the muscular actions and the funciotns of muscles in maintaining posture of the body.
contractures abnormal, usually permanent condition of a joint characterized by flexion and fixation and caused by atrophy.
dorsal position (supine) lying horizontal on the back
dorsal recumbent supine position with patient lying on back, head and shoulders with extremities moderately flexed and legs extended.
dorsiflexion bending or flexing backward, as in upward bending of the fingers, wrists, feet, toes.
extension movement of joint that increases the angle between two adjoining bones.
flexion movement of certain joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones
fowler's position a position arranged by elevating the head of the bed 45-60 degrees.
high fowler's position position arragned by elevating the head of the bed 60-90 degrees.
genupectoral (knee to chest) patient kneels so weight of body is supported by knees and chest
hyperextension extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit
immobility inability to move around freely, caused by and condition in which movement is impaired or therapeutically restricted.
joint any one of the conections between bones
lateral position when patient is resting on his/her side.
lithotomy patient lying supine with hips and knees flexed and the thighs abducted and rotated externally.
logroll technique used to turn a a patient in bed as a single unit while maintaining straight body alignment.
mobility the ability to move in ones environment with ease and without restriction
necrosis local death of tissue from disease or injury
orthopnea the ability to breathe only in the upright position
orthopneic pertains to the posture assumed by the patient sitting up in bed at a 90 degree angle (or beyond, tripod position)
pivot turn or change of direction with your feet while remaining in a fixed place
pressure ulcer an ulcer that forms from a local interference with circulation
pronation palm of the hand turned down
prone position when the patient is lying face down
range of motion (ROM) normal movement that any given joint is capable of making. Any body action involving the muscles joint and natural directional movement.
semi-fowlers position position arranged by elevating the head of the bed 30-45 degrees and raising the knees up to 15 degrees.
shearing force an applied force that causes a downward and forward pressure on the tissues beneath the skin (usually causes skin tearing in older patients)
sims position side-lying position in which the weight is distributed over the anterior ilium, humerus and clavicle. (usually on left side for most procedures)
supination the act of turning the palm of the hand forward or upward
supine position resting on back
trendelenburg a position in which the patient is l ying supine with the head lower than the body with the body and legs elevated and on an incline.
What is the max weight a lpn should lift? 35% of own body weight
what are the patient assistance factors in patient movement? the patients ability to assist, activity level, weight, medical equipment, pain, surgical sites, medical diagnosis, and complications of immobility
what are the body mechanic principles in patient movement? maintain alignment, get help if needed, use leg muscles to lift, base of support, smooth coordinated movements, center of gravity, and pull and pivot
What are some considerations when moving older patients? Skin, joints, flexibility and joint mobility, weakness and hypotension, altered sensory perception, limitations on positioning
What are some assistive devices for moving or positioning a patient? pillows, foot boots, sandbags, hand roll, hand-wrist splint, trapeze bar, side rail, bed board, wedge pillow
What is mobility unable to move freely, predisposes the patient to develop a wide variety of complications
unable to move freely, predisposes the patient to develop a wide variety of complications what is immobility
What are some improper allignment hazards? Pressure ulcers, shearing force, contractures, fluid in lungs
You should teach a patient about these topics for movement and positioning assist with positioning, assess environment to prevent falls, ROM exercises to prevent immobility problems, avoid prolonged sitting, frequent stretching, rising slowly.
Nursing interventions for positioning reposition, fluid intake, diet, rom exercises, careful handling, positioning, ambulation, antiembolism measures.
What is active ROM Patient is able to move with no assistance from self or another
What is assisted ROM Range a movement a patient can make with assistance from self or another
fibrous joint joint composed of a thin layer of dense connective tissue, also called immovable or synarthroses
cartilaginous joint joint composed of a thin layer of dense connective tissue, also called immovable or synarthroses
synovial joint most common type of joint, also called freely movable or diarthroses
circumduction moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand, for example)
elevation ising a part (shrugging thou shoulders, for example)
eversion turning the foot so the sole is outward
inversion turning the foot so the sole is inward
plantar flexion extending the foot at the ankle (bending the foot downward)
protraction moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward, for example)
retraction moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward, for example)
rotation moving a part around an axis (twisting the head side to side, for example)
alignment relationship of various body parts to one another
things to consider when assisting a patient to ambulate orthostatic hypotension; appropriate ammount of support; avoidance of overtiring; if falling, support the head
minimal support this level of support involves only holding a patient's arm to provide stability and reassurance
moderate support this level of support requires caregiver to encircle the arm and support patients waist
maximum support it requires two people to provide this type of support
the patient conducts ROM exercises without assistance active ROM
the nurse conducts ROM exercises without the patient's help active assisted ROM
the nurse conducts ROM exercises without the patient's help passive ROM
the nurse assists the patient to complete ROM that they are able to partially complete unassisted passive assisted ROM
three muscles of the hips and groin iliopsoas; gluteus maximus; adductor muscles
three muscles of the hamstrings three muscles of the hamstrings
the muscles of the quadriceps femoris group rectus femoris; vastus lateralis; vastus medialis; vastus intermedius
four major muscles of the lower leg tibialis anterior; gastrocnemius; peroneus; soleus
canaliculi an extremely narrow tubular passage or channel in compact bone
the process in which most bones are formed from cartilage models endochrondral ossification
palpable landmark bony landmarks that can be felt through the skin
sternoclavicular joint the direct point of attachment between the bones of the upper extremity and the axial skeleton
carple tunnel syndrome muscle weakness, pain, and tingling in the redial side of the wrist, hand, and fingers
synarthrosis connective tissue membrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secrets synovial fluid
synovial membrane connective tissue membrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secrets synovial fluid
ring of calcified matrix surrounding the Haversian canal concentric lamella
*Rectus femoris*Vastus lateralis*Vastus medialis*Vastus intermedius Quadricepts femoris group
Where are smooth muscles found? Walls of hollow viscera, peristalsis, and vasoconstriction.
Peristalsis wavelike motion that occurs in certain tubular organs, such as the intestines, and helps force the contents of these organs along their lengths.
I Bands (light bands) composed of thin actin filaments.
*External oblique*Internal oblique*Transversus abdominis*Rectus abdominis Abdominal Muscles
Contraction of muscle fibers produces most of the _____ required to maintain normal body temperature. heat
number of cervical vertebrae 7
number of thoracic vertebrae 12
number of lumbar vertebrae 5
number of fused vertebrae in the sacrum 5 locked together
number of fused vertebrae in the coccyx 4 locked together
number of pairs of ribs in the thoracic cage 12
first 7 pairs; costal cartilages of ribs join directly to the sternum number of true ribs
remaining pairs, 8 through 12; connected indirectly to the sternum number of false ribs
last two pairs 11, 12; no cartilaginous attachment to the sternum number of floating ribs
synarthroses immovable joints
amphiarthroses slightly movable joints
diarthroses freely movable joints
synarthroses fibrous tissue binds bones together in this type of joint
cartilaginous tissue binds bones together in this type of joint amphiarthroses
synovial tissue binds bones together in this type of joint diarthroses
types of synovial joints ball and socket, condyloid, gliding, hinge, pivot, saddle
shoulder and hip (type of joint) example of ball-and socket joint
between the wrist and ankle bones (type of joint) example of gliding joints
elbow...humerus and ulna (type of joint) example of a hinge joint
proximal ends of radius and ulna (type of joint) example of a pivot joint
joint between the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb example of a saddle joint
suture between the occipital and parietal bones lambdoidal suture
suture between the temporal and parietal bones squamosal suture
suture between the frontal bone and the parietal bones coronal suture
suture that is midline between the two parietal bones sagittal suture
Sacromeres are separted from each other by dark bands called ______. Z Lines
Thick band of tissue that covers the bones on the bottom of the foot. Plantar Fascia
The first thing needed for a muscle group to contract is _______________. Electrical Stimulus (nervous system)
The electrical stimulus in muscle contraction triggers in the release of what positively charged cat ion? Calcium
COntractions in the absence of adequate oxygen produces _______, which contributes to muscle soreness. Lactic Acid
What is the specialized point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates? Neuromuscular Juntion
Increases muscle's ability to sustain moderate exercise over a long period. Allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients, and does not result in muscle hypertrophy. Endurance aerobic Training
Exercise involving contraction of muscles against heavy resistance. Increases number of microfilaments in each muscle fiber, does not increase muscle fibers. Strength anaerobic Training
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