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Final Exam

HA&P Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
Where do endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood
What is the function of endocrine glands? regulates the rates of certain chemical reactions, aid in the transport of substances, play roles in growth, and development and reproduction
What is the action of a hormone directed at? target cells
What is the major difference between steroids and other types of hormones? receptor sites for steroid hormones are located in the target cell's nucleus
What are the hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland? growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Which of the following is a function of the thymus gland? produce white blood cells and fight off infection
The effect of Parathyroid hormone is to stimulate the bone to raise blood calcium level
What organ/gland is responsible for the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine? adrenal
The action of insulin that most directly leads to lowered blood sugar is inhibiting the release of glucagon
Where is the hormone melatonin secreted? pineal gland
What hormone targets follicles, triggering ovulation and increases secretion of progesterone? Luteinizing hormone
What are the formed elements of blood? red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
What is the structure of red blood cells? irregularly shaped fragments without a nucleus
Which of the following elements of blood are essential to gas exchange within tissues? erythrocytes
What are damaged red blood cells destroyed by? macrophages
Where are red blood cells produced in an adult? red marrow
The most numerous white blood cell is the neutrophil
What is the white blood cell that forms antibodies necessary for immunity for specific diseases? lymphocyte
How do white blood cells combat infection? phagocytosis and antibody production
When do platelets plugs form? when platelets are exposed to rough surfaces
What antigens and antibodies does a person with type A blood have? antigen A and anti-B antibody
What antigens and antibodies are present in blood that is B+? antigen B, anti-A antibody and Rh antibodies
What is a blood clot forming abnormally in blood vessel called? thrombus
What is the most effective hemostatic mechanism that causes a blood clot? coagulation
What are external cardiac defibrillators used for? sudden cardiac arrest
What is the visceral pericardium also known as? epicardium
Where are Purkinje fibers located? myocardium
Where is the tricuspid valve located? right atrium and right ventricle
What is the valve between the chambers of the left side of the heart? mitral (bicuspid valve)
Describe the events of the cardiac cycle: both atria contract and both ventricles relaz; then both ventricles contract and both atria relax
What is the P wave on an ECG? atrial depolarization
What does a straight line on an ECG represent? atrial contraction
What is the maximum pressure in the artery, occurring during ventricular contraction called? systolic pressure
What is the period in which a heart chamber is relaxing? diastole
How does lymph fluid move? muscle contraction
What is the function of lymph nodes? filtering foreign substances and immune surveillance
The upper skin layer is an example of which of the following body defenses against infection? mechanical barrier
How are T and B cells able to recognize foreign proteins? presence of receptor molecules on T cells and B cells which fit the molecules of antigens
How do T cells produce an initial immune response? attaching to antigen
How do B cells response to an antigen? producing antibodies or immunoglobulins
What are the main roles of the lymphatic system? managing fluid levels in the body, filtering out bacteria, and housing types of white blood cells
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system? pancreas, liver, gallbladder
What is the function of the gallbladder? store and release bile
What are the parts to the small intestine? duodenum, jejunum and ileum
What is the small projection that contains lymphatic tissue that is attached to the cecum? appendix
What are the functions of the urinary system? regulation of body fluids, removal of metabolic wastes, regulation of volume and chemical makeup of blood, excretion of toxins
What is the functional unit of the kidney? nephron
The flow of urine within the kidney occurs in the following order: glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of the nephron loop
What is the function of the nephron? structural and functional unit of the kidney
Which structures belong to the nephron? corpuscle, tubule, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, juxtaglomerular apparatus, peritubular capillary, and descending and ascending limb
Created by: jlafferty