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# Lab Notes

### Notes from procedures done in the labratory

Basic Units of the Metric System 1. Meter(Length) 2. Liter(Volume) 3. Gram(Mass)
Metric Unit Prefixes Kilo(k), Hecto(h), Deca(da), m l g, Deci(d), Centi(c), Milli(m), , , Micro(|U)
Length Measurements Made with metric ruler
Interpolate Estimating how far an object extends between the smallest marks on the measuring device
Dependent Variable Will always be on the y - axis for this semester. Dependent variables are values that result directly from the independent variable. You do not put this information into the equation or experiment but instead observe or discover it.
Independent Variable Will always be on the x - axis for this semester. Think of an independent variable as your input. An independent variable represents information that you put in to the equation.
The Surface Area of a Rectangular Block Formula SA = 2(l*w)+2(l*h)+2(w*h). Express answer in cm^2
Volume of a Rectangular Block Formula V = l*w*h. Measurements made with a metric ruler. Express answers in cm^3
Surface Area to Volume Ratio(SA/Vol ratio) The surface area divided by the volume. Measure with metric ruler. Express answer in cm^2/cm^3
Relationship between SA/Vol ratio and Volume As volume increases, SA/Vol ratio decreases. Same with rectangles and perfect cubes and all shapes.
Measuring the Volume of Irregular Shaped Solids Measure volume by using water displacement. A submerged object will displace an amount of water equal to its volume. Express answer in ml
Relationship Between the Units ml and cm^3 These two unit measures are equal
Density Formula Density = mass(g)/volume(ml or cm^3)
Functional Groups Clusters of atoms bonded to the carbon backbone of the molecule and are most commonly involved in chemical reactions. They impart particular characteristics to the larger molecule to which they are attached.
Bogen's Universal Indicator Used to determine the pH of a specific solutions due to it changing colors at specific pH end points... Pink = pH4, Yellow = pH6, Green = pH7, Blue = pH9, Violet > pH9
Calculating Dilutions Formula Cs*Vs = Cd*Vd or (C1*V1 = C2*V2). Express answers in either % or ml depending on what you solve for
Spec 20 Spetrophotometer A device which will determine the percent transmittance and/or absorbance of various wavelengths of light through a sample.
Calibrating Spec 20 1. Set the zero knob to zero first 2. Then set the light control knob to 100% Transmittance while using a water blank 3. Finally, place each sample in the Spec 20 and watch for change in light transmittance
pH of Blood and Other Bodily Fluids Relatively insensitive to the addition of acid or base because of buffers.
Buffers in Living Systems Helps to stabilize and maintain normal pH levels
Covalent Bonds Result in relatively stable molecules that do not dissociate in aqueous (water) environment
Hydrochloric Acid(HCL) Makes solution more acidic, increases hydrogen ion concentration. Lowers pH
Sodium Hydroxide(NaOH) Makes solution more basic, decreases hydrogen ion concentration. Highers pH
Carbohydrates Molecules that consist of one(monosaccharide), two(disaccharide), or many(polysaccharide) simple sugars
Benedict's Reagent A reagent that tests for the presence of reducing sugars such as simple sugars like glucose(dextrose). Will start out light blue and will from a yellow-green, orange, or red colored precipitate when boiled in the presence of simple sugars. Only use 1 ml
Iodine-Potassium Iodide(IKI) A reagent that tests for the presence of starch. Will start out an amber color and will from a dark purple or black colored precipitate when at room temperature.
Lipid A non-polar organic molecule, which is not soluble in water
Sudan IV A non-polar reagent that will stick to other non-polar substances when both are in a polar environment such as water
Sudan IV - Lipid Complex A reagent that tests for lipids. Will produce an orange colored spot on filter paper to which lipid has been added
Proteins Polymers of amino acid in which the carboxyl group of one amino acid forms a peptide bond with the amine group of another animo acid
Biuret Reagent A reagent that tests for the presence of proteins. Will start out pale blue and will form a purplish-violet color resulting from the cupric(copper) ions forming a complex with the peptide bonds
Relationship Between Concentration of Dye and % Light Trannsmittance As concentration increases, % Light Transmittance decreases
Triple Beam Balance When measuring mass, use the triple beam balance and express answer in g
When Objects Will Sink In Water When the density of an object is greater than 1g/ml
When Objects Will Float In Water When the density of an object is less than 1g/ml
Valence of an Atom How many electrons are needed to make an atom have a full electron shell
Carbon Atom Valence 4 electrons
Hydrogen Atom Valence 1 electron
Nitrogen Atom Valence 3 electrons
Oxygen Atom Valence 2 electrons
Phosphorous Atom Valence 5 electrons
Sulfur Atom Valence 2 electrons
Identify Models of Functional Groups Go to the Chapter 4 flashcards
Model Building Kits Parts Ball = atom, Number of holes in each ball = valence of atom, Wooden or plastic sticks = single bonds, Springs = double bonds
Qualitative Data Data that describes something
Quantitative Data Data that can be counted and measured
Which Reagent Tests Positive Before Starch Hydrolysis IKI
Which Reagent Tests Positive After Starch Hydrolysis Benedict's Reagent
1. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 1. Use Coarse Adjustment focus knob to maximize working distance.. 2. Rotate revolving nosepiece into position with the scanning objective lens.. 3. Center the slide holder of the mechanical stage on the microscope stage..
2. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 4. Place the slide between the mechanical stage clips, and push it all the way back to the mechanical stage bar.. 5. Plug in the microscope and turn on the light switch..
3. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 6. Using the mechanical stage adjustment knobs, center the coverslip over the stage aperture.. 7. While carefully WATCHING the slide on the stage, use the coarse adjustment focus knob to move the specimen toward the scanning objective lens until it stops
3. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 8. Look into the microscope and turn the coarse adjustment focus knob until you see the specimen.. 9. Rotate the revolving nosepiece to the low power objective lens and use the coarse adjustment focus knob to refocus the specimen..
4. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 10. Rotate the revolving nosepiece to the high dry power objective lens and use the FINE ADJUSTMENT FOCUS KNOB ONLY to focus the specimen.. 11. When removing slide, rotate revolving nosepiece so that scanning objective lens is in viewing position
5. Correct Procedure For Focusing and Viewing With a Compound Microscope 12. Then use the coarse adjustment focus knob to maximize the working distance
Total Magnification for Any Objective Total Mag = Mag of Ocular * Mag of Objective. Express answers in proper units
Lowest Power Lens Name and Magnification Called the Scanning Objective Lens(4x)
Middle Power Lens Name and Magnification Called the Low Power Objective Lens(10x)
Highest Power Lens Name and Magnification Called the High Dry Power Objective Lens(40x)
Relationship Between Magnification and Diameter Field of View As magnification increases, the diameter field of view decreases
Convert mm into microns 1 millimeter(mm) = 1000 micra(|U). Add 3 zeroes
Equation for Calculating the Diameter Field of View or the Magnification M1 * D1 = M2 * D2. Express answers in either X or m(will probably have to convert to microns)
Estimating Cell Size in Microns Equation Size of Cell = DFV/# of cells that fit across the DFV
Objective That Should Be Used to Get Most Accurate Estimate of Specimen Size High Dry Power Objective Lens
Procedure For Preparing a Wet Mount 1. Obtain Slide.. 2. Place one or two drops of water on slide.. 3. Place specimen in Water.. 4. Place coverslip over specimen in water
1. Procedure For Replacement Staining 1. Place a few drops of the Stain on the slide against one edge of the coverslip.. 2. Place the smooth edge of a single layer paper towel up against the opposite edge of the coverslip
2. Procedure For Replacement Staining 3. Continue process, adding more stain if necessary, until stain covers the area under the coverslip.. 4. Wait a few seconds, place distilled water on one side of the coverslip, place paper towel edge at other side, draw out stain replaceing with water
How Did the Letter "e" Look Under Microscope The letter "e" was upside down and inverted(turned 180 degrees)
What Does the Dialysis Bag Represent Plasma(Cell) membrane
Which Molecules Out of the Four In Exercise 5 Were Able To Diffuse of Move By Osmosis Water, Glucose, IKI
Which Molecules Of The Four In Exercise 5 Were Not Able To Diffuse Of Move By Osmosis Starch
What Evidence From Experiment Shows Which Molecules Were Able to or Not Able To Diffuse Or Move By Osmosis Starch not found in the beaker so stayed in bag, glucose found in bag and in beaker when originally just in bag, IKI found in bag when originally just in beaker, weight of bag changed which indicates water moved into bag when originally just in beaker
% Mass Change Equation % Mass Change = (Final Bag Mass - Initial Bag Mass/Initial Bag Mass) * 100
Procedure And Result For Elodea Experiment Wet mount of Elodea leaf prepared, leaf observed under high dry power objective lens, add 5% saline solution, observe the leaf again under high dry power objective lens
Relationship Between Hypo, Iso, and Hypertonic Solutions Hypotonic Solution(low solute and high water content), Hypertonic(high solute and low water content), Isotonic(equal solute and water content)
Normal Environment For Elodea Leaf Elodea leaf normal tonicity is a hypotonic solution
Elodea Placed in 5% Saline solution Elodea was placed in a hypertonic solution and plasmolysis occurs. Plasma membrane becomes visible when this cell is placed in a hypertonic solution
Cytoplasmic Streaming or Cyclosis The movement of the cytoplasm within a cell
Little Green Sacs in Elodea Leaf This little green sacs are chloroplasts
Function of Contractile Vacoule in Protozoans Osmoregulation, regulation of internal water pressure
Name of Dye Used in Yeast Transport Experiment Congo Red
Unheated(Live) Yeast Appearance And Transport Processes Used Clear because it could pump out the congo red after diffusion occured. Both active and passive took place
Heated(Dead) Yeast Appearance And Transport Processes Used Red Because could not pump out the congo red after diffusion occured. Only passive transport took place
Structures In the Cell Membrane of Yeast That Are Denatured With Heat Protein Pumps
Be Able To Identify the The Protozoan Underneath the Microsocope Paramecium(looks like capsule), Euglena(looks like paramecium but more pointed at edges), Amoeba(looks blobular)
Motility Structure Used By Microorganisms Paramecium(cilia), Euglena(flagella), Amoeba(psuedopodia)
Glucose Molecule Model 6 Carbons(black balls), contains hydroxyl and an aldehyde(carbonyl at the end of the molecule)
Fructose Molecule Model 6 carbons(black balls), contains a ketone(carbonyl group in the middle of the molcule)
Glycerol Molecule Model 3 carbons(black balls)
Glycine molecule Model 2 carbons(black balls), an Amino and Carboxyl functional group
Go To Chapter 4 Slides Functional Groups Listing
Go To Lab Practical #1 Review http://www.seminolestate.edu/media/biology/resources/lab-practical-1-review.pdf
Lab Exercise 6 Enzyme Activity Enzyme Used Catalase
Chemical Reaction of Catalase 2H2O2 ----Catalase(enzyme)---> 2H2O + O2
Substrate of Catalase Hydrogen Peroxide(H2O2)
Source of Enzyme Catalase in Lab 6 Sheep Blood
Product of Catalase Measured in Lab 6 Oxygen(O2)
Variable Measured in Lab 6 pH, Temperature, Enzyme Concentration, Substrate(H2O2) Concentration, Inhibitors
Name of Inhibitor in Lab 6 Copper Sulfate(CuSO4)
Experimental Control in Lab 6 Distilled Water
Independent and Dependent Variables in Lab 6 Values on x-axis are independent variables and values on y-axis are dependent.
What does the Peak in the pH graph Mean Enzymes function best at this pH concentration
Why is there a decline on the left side of the peak on the pH graph Enzymes active sites are denatured when pH decreases
Why is there a decline on the right side of the peak on the pH graph Enzymes active sites are denatured when pH increasess
What does the peak in the Temperature Graph Mean Enzymes function best at this temperature
Why is there a decline on the left side of the peak on the temperature graph Molecular collisions slow down
Why is there a decline on the right side of the peak on the temperature graph Enzymes active sites denature at high temperatures
What is the relationship between enzyme concentration and enzyme activity levels As enzyme concentration increases, enzyme activity level increases
What is the relationship between substrate concentration and enzyme activity levels As substrate concentration increases, enzyme activity level increases
In the substrate and enzyme concentration graph: If there is a decline after the peak, what does that sugggest Either enzyme saturation or substrates not available
What happened to enzyme activity levels when the inhibitor was added Enzyme activity levels decrease
Equation for Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight energy ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Equation for Aerobic Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 ------> 6CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy(ATP)
Which of these events are occurring in a plant when it is in the Dark Aerobic Respiration
Which of these events are occurring in a plant when it is in the Light Both Aerobic Respiration and Photosynthesis
Which Gas is measured in this experiment Carbon Dioxide(CO2)
What is the name of the Plant that was used in this experiment Ask Ms. Boyce
What was the purpose of the beaker filled with water in this experiment This acted as a Heat Sheild
What happened to the CO2 Concentration when the plant was not covered in foil and why CO2 levels decreased because photosynthesis and aerobic respiration was taking place
What happened to the CO2 Concentration when the plant was covered in foil and why CO2 levels increased because just aerobic respiration was taking place
Theory Behind the procedure for Paper Chromatography This procedure can be utilized to separate a mixture of solutes that are found in the same solution
The two factors that affect the distance traveled from origin that the molecules move on the paper Size and Solubility
What type of molecules were separated with this procedure Pigments
What was the name of the Plant that was used in this procedure Magnolia Leaf
Size of Pigments affect on distance traveled The smaller the pigment, the farther it traveled(carotenoids). The larger the pigment, distance traveled is less(Chlorophyll).
What pigments were separated in this procedure Carotenoids(dark yellow, orange), Xanthophyll(light yellow), Chlorophyll a(dark green), Chlorophyll b(light green)
What was measured by the Spec 20 in this lab Absorption Spectrum
1. Calibrating Spec 20 for determining Absorption Spectrum 1. Begin in transmittance mode.. 2. Set Wavelength to desired wavelength.. 3. Chamber empty.. 4. Set “Zero Control” Knob to 0.0.. 5. Insert blank..
2. Calibrating Spec 20 for determining Absorption Spectrum 6. Set “Light Transmittance” Knob to 100%.. 7. Remove blank.. 8. Switch to absorbance mode.. 9. Insert sample and record
What is the Name of the plant that was used to determine the relationship between chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity Coleus Leaf
The pigment for the different colors of the Coleus Leaf Green(Chlorophyll alone), Red(Anthocyanin alone), Brick Red(Both pigents), Off-White(No pigments)
Water soluble pigment which was extracted first in the water bath treatment Anthocyanin
Which pigment was alcohol soluble and was extracted second in the alcohol bath treatment Chlorophyll
What reagent was used on the decolorized leaf IKI
What did this reagent indicate the presence of Starch
How did the pattern of where the reagent reacted positively compare to the original color pattern on the leaf The IKI tested positive for starch on the areas of the Coleus leaf that were green(contains chlorophyll)
What does the experiment indirectly prove That the pigment Chlorophyll(name, not color) is necessary for photosynthesis in order to produce glucose molecules, which are the monomers of starch
What structure will enable you to determine that the plant cell is in telophase Cell Plate
What structure will enable you to determine that the animal cell is in telophase Cleavage Furrow
What do the pop beads represent Genes
What do the pop magnets represent Centromeres
What is the source of DNA in DNA Analysis/Fingerprinting Lambda Bacteriaphage
What are the general names of the enzymes used to digest or cut up DNA Restriction Enzymes(Endonuclease)
What is the charge of a DNA molecule Negative charge
The theory behind the general procedure for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis The procedure will separate digested DNA fragments from each other based upon their molecular size and much like in the paper chromatography experiment, the smaller molecules will travel(migrate) farther in the gel
The number of recognition sites for an enzyme on a DNA molecule to how many restriction fragments are produced upon digestion Just add 1 to the number of recognition sites for an enzyme on a DNA molecule to get the number of restriction fragments
By what property are the restriction fragments separated out in the AGE process The size of the DNA molecules
Which pole do the fragments migrate to, + or - The positive pole(+)
Which size fragments will travel farther in the AGE The smaller fragments
When viewing a finsished AGE, what does the fact that you have different patterns of separated fragments in each lane represent. That different enzymes are used and they cut the DNA at different recognition points
What are the correct units to express the size of the DNA fragments bp(base pairs)
Know how to match an AGE fingerprint with a restriction map to determine which enzyme produced the pattern in any given lane Count the recognition sites and add one to that number to get the number of DNA fragments
Lab Practical 2 Review Link http://www.seminolestate.edu/media/biology/resources/lab-practical2-slideshow-rev.pdf
Created by: TimBiology1