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Bio Final


Reason for reproducing to pass on genetic information
Genetic information DNA
Evolution the change in living things over time (creates a change in genetic make up)
Adaptations Changes in a species over many generations due to the environmental pressures--not choice
Natural Selection survival of the fittest
Nucleic Acids DNA or RNA, have instructions to build proteins
DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids
Population a group of organisms of the same species in the same location
Abiotic Factors Non-living
Biotic Factors Living
Autotroph make own food (producer)
Heterotroph Gets energy by eating other living things or once living things (consumer)
Food Web a complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy
Mutualism ecological relationship between two species in which each species gets a benefit from the interaction
Commensalism ecological relationship in which one species receives a benefit but the other species is not affected
Parasitism ecological relationship in which one organism benefits by harming another organism
Predation process by which one organism hunts another organism
exponential growth when a population size increases dramatically and does not level off, limiting factors are not yet used up
logistic growth begins with a period of slow growth followed by a brief period of exponential growth, eventually reaching carrying capacity
carrying capacity the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that the environment can normally and consistently support
runs low on food and space when the carrying capacity has been hit
Cell Cycle regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication and cell division
Mitosis the division of the cell nucleus and its contents
2 genetically identical daughter cells the product of mitosis
interphase preparing to divide (copies DNA)
prophase nuclear envelope begins to break down, spindle fibers form and centrioles begin to move to opposite poles
metaphase spindle fibers attach on the centromere of each chromosome and the chromosomes align along the equator of the cell
anaphase chromosomes separate from each other and move to opposite sides of the cell
telophase a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, nuclear membranes start to form, chromosomes start to uncoil and spindle fibers fall apart
cancer uncontrolled cell division where the cells contribute nothing to the body's function, but take up food and blood supply
normal cells that have genes that have been damaged and now carry mutated genes and divide more rapidly than healthy cells cancer cells
Macromolecules organic molecules which combine to form living organisms; includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus which provides instruction for making proteins; provides hereditary information
ribonucleic acid (RNA) single stranded nucleic acid made during transcription to provide template for making proteins at ribosome during translation
cell cycle components include interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase part of the cell cycle; resting stage of cell and preparation for mitosis; includes G 1 (duplication of organelles) S phase(replication of DNA) and G 2 (checking of replication)
mitosis part of cell cycle; division of the nucleus; includes prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase
cytokinesis part of cell cycle; division of cytoplasm and organelles except nucleus
cancer uncontrolled cell division; creates tumors and interferes with normal cell function
Nucleotide A subunit (monomer) of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. Composed of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
Phosphate Group Component of DNA or RNA nucleotide
DNA Bases Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine in DNA. Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine in RNA.
Genetic Code The code found in DNA that matches codons in mRNA to amino acids on tRNA.
Genome An organism's complete set of genetic information (DNA).
Transcription The process where a copy of mRNA is made from one gene in DNA; occurs in nucleus
Translation The process of making a protein, where tRNA matches amino acids to codons in the mRNA; occurs in ribosome
Meiosis cell division creating sex cells with half the amount of DNA(haploid)
Monohybrid cross punnett square showing results of genetic cross of one trait
Dominant allele with stronger genetic trait always expressed
homozygous alleles with the same genetic information
Non-Mendelian Inheritance genetic inheritance pattern different from dominant hides recessive trait such as codominance, imcomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance genetic inheritance pattern where phenotype of offspring are a blend between two separate parental phenotypes
Genetic Mutation changes in organism's DNA sequence
Deletion changes in genetic code with removal of nucleotides
Insertion changes in genetic code with addition of nucleotides
Gene A sectiong of DNA that codes for a trait.
Punnett Square graphic organizer showing predicted results of a genetic cross
Dihybrid cross punnett square showing results of genetic cross of two traits
Mendelian Inheritance genetic inheritance pattern when dominant trait always masks or hides phenotype of recessive trait
gametes Haploid cells created by meiosis; sperm or egg
Independent Assortment Mendel principle states different pairs of genes are passed to offsrping separately to form new gene combinations
Crossing Over exchange of DNA from separate chromosomes during meiosis
Segregation Mendel principle that gene pairs separate during meiosis so each parent passes down one form of gene to offspring.
Common Ancestor the most recent ancestral form or species from which two different species evolved
Fossil Record A term used by paleontologists to refer to the total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them
Anatomical Evidence morphological(form or structure) or physiological (function) similarities between different species of plants or animals
Molecular Evidence genes shared due to common ancestry
Natural Selection the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures
Adaptations characteristic that increases fitness and chances of reproduction
Diversity degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet
Evolutionary Mechanisms/Factors that cause evolution Mutation, migration (gene flow), genetic drift, and natural selection
Genetic Drift change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling
Gene Flow the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another
Mutation a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene's which alters the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene
Taxonomy classfy living organisms into groups; (Domain),Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus,Species
Archaea Kingdom prokaryotic kingdom of bacteria able to live in harsh enviroments which are hot,salty or acidic
Eubacteria Kingdom prokaryotic kingdom of bacteria with majority of organisms are beneficial and only a few are harmful
Protist Kingdom eukaryotic kingdom of mostly one celled organism divided into 3 groups: animal like, plant like, and fungus like
Fungi Kingdom eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophic decomposers with cell walls made of chitin
Plant Kingdom eukaryotic kingdom of autotrophic, multicellular stationary organisms which undergo photosynthesis
Animal Kingdom eukaryotic kingdom of heterotrophic, multicellular mobile organisms.
Population a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed
Limiting Factors any factor that limits the size of a population by restricting its numbers, reproduction, or distribution
Carrying Capacity the maximum population a habitat can sustain
Predation a relationship between two species where one species hunts (predator) and eats the other species (prey)
Competition a relationship between two species where they both require the same resource (food, water, shelter, space) and must compete for it
Parasitism a relationship between two species where one species is helped and the other species is harmed
Commensalism a relationship between two species where one species is helped and the other species is not affected
Mutualism a relationship between two species where both species are helped
Autotroph an organism that can use photosynthesis to make its own food: "self-feeding"
Heterotroph an organism that cannot use photosynthesis to make its own food and must eat other organisms to survive: "other-feeding"
Trophic Level the position a species occupies in a food chain; ex. producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer
Food Web a combination of several food chains within an ecosystem
Ecological Pyramid a graphic representation of the amount of biomass present in each trophic level of a food chain; producers are always on the bottom, then primary consumers, then secondary consumers and so on
10% rule Only 10% of the total available energy is transferred to each trophic level
protein synthesis - the info in DNA bases are copied onto a length of a mRNA - mRNA moves to the ribosome - mRNA is brought together with amino acids - resulting in a chain of amino acids that folds into a protein
cell division takes place because cells die and need to be replaced
cell division includes 1. interphase 2. mitosis 3. cytokinesis
replication the duplication of DNA - 2 strands of double helix unwind - each strand serves as a template for a 2nd DNA strand - resulting in doubling the original amount of DNA
mitosis â—¦The apportioning of the copied DNA into two quantities in a parent cell
cytokinesis â—¦The physical splitting of this parent cell into two daughter cells
chromosome packaged units of DNA - composed of DNA and its associated proteins-Chromatin
homologous chromosomes - genes are in the same location - 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs - xx: females; xy: males
interphase the cell carries out it's work, grows, and duplicates its chromosomes in preparation for division
mitotic phase - the duplicated chromosomes separate (mitosis) and cells split into two (cytokinesis)
4 stages of mitosis 1. prophase 2. metaphase 3. anaphase 4. telophase
prophase mitosis begins and chromosomes take shape
metaphase sister chromatids and align them in middle
anaphase sister chromatids are moved apart to opposite poles in the cell, each becoming full-fledged chromosome
telophase Cleavage furrow forms, cells start to split into 2
karyotype a pictorial arrangement of a full set of an organism's chromosomes
diploid cells have paired sets of chromosomes; any cell except gametes(sperm/egg) - haploid egg and sperm=diploid egg
haploid cells cells that contain a single set of chromosomes; half the amount of chromosomes of parent cells - reproductive
Meiosis single diploid cell divides to produce 4 haploid cells
gametes the haploid cells produced during meiosis - female: eggs - male: sperm
crossing over process in meiosis that exchange of parts of chromosomes; increases genetic diversity
independent assortment random alignment of maternal/paternal chromosomes at the metaphase plate; - allows for genetic variation
meiosis generates diversity by: -crossing over and independent assortment
asexual reproduction mitosis; produces organisms that are exact genetic copies, or clones, of the parental organism
n condition of being haploid: having a single set of chromosomes
2n condition of being diploid: having 2 sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Gregor Mendel o Father of genetics
Phenotype o any physiological feature, bodily characteristic, or behavior of an organism; ex. Purple or white flowers
genotype o genetic makeup o phenotypes of organisms are largely determined by this
alleles o one of the alternative forms of a single gene o seeds: one codes for yellow, ones for green
law of segregation o differing characters in organisms result from 2 genetic elements (alleles) that separate in gamete formation, such that each gamete gets only one of the 2 alleles
homozygous - an organism that has 2 of the SAME alleles of a gene for a given character
heterozygous o the alleles they have for the trait are DIFFERENT
dominant o expressed in heterozygous condition
recessive o conditions that will not exist in the presence of even a single functional allele o not expressed in the heterozygous condition
incomplete dominance o operates when neither allele for a given gene is completely dominant; blending. Incomplete=inbetween o can yield an intermediate phenotype (pink , when red is dominant and white is recessive)
co-dominant alleles o differing alleles of a single gene have independent effects on the phenotype o ex. One individual has type A, the other has type B= type AB blood
polygenic inheritance o one trait determined by the interaction of multiple genes, each having a small additive effect on character o eye color, hair color, etc.
pleiotropy one gene has many effects (opposite of polygenic)
dihybrid cross o an experimental cross in which the plants used differ in two of their characteristics
first filial generation (F1) the offspring of the parental generation in an experimental genetic cross
multiple alleles o 3 or more alleles-alternative forms of a gene-occurring in a population (blood typing has A, B, and O alleles)
x-linked inheritance trait located on the sex chromosome -usally x-linked; - men more likely than women bc women have an extra X chromosome to make up for defects - ex. red-green color blindness
autosomal recessive disorder o a recessive dysfunction caused by a faulty allele on an autosome (not an X or Y chromosome) o ex. Sickle-cell anemia
autosomal dominant disorder o a single allele can bring about the condition regardless of whether a person also has a normal allele
pedigrees genetic familial histories that take form of diagrams
nondisjunction o homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate correctly in meiosis o resulting in eggs or sperm that have one too many or one too few chromosomes Ex: down syndrome- 3 copies of 21st chromosome instead of two
carrier o a person who doesn't suffer from a recessive condition, but who carries an allele and can pass down
Watson, Crick, and Rosalind Franklin o Set out to decipher the structure of DNA o Franklin used x-ray diffraction
nucleotides o building blocks of DNA o consist of one sugar (deoxyribose), one phosphate group, and one of four bases (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine)
DNA bases o extend inward from the handrails of DNA, with base pairs joined to each other in the middle by hydrogen bonds o A pairs with T o G pairs with C
production of double helix o one parental strand of DNA and one newly synthesized complementary strand combine o this is how life builds on itself
DNA polymerases group of enzymes central to DNA replication
DNA can encode info for: the huge amount of proteins used by living things
amino acids o made of a codon of 3 bases, order determines the type of proteins
transcription o stage in protein synthesis, comes after replication o the info encoded in DNA is copied onto a length of mRNA
translation o last stage of protein synthesis; follows transcription o amino acids brought to a ribosome by transfer RNA molecules are linked together within the ribosome in the order specified by the mRNA sequence
codon each triplet of mRNA bases that codes for an amino acid
ribosomes o workbenches of protein synthesis
Which process or processes occur in the nucleus? DNA replication and transcription
How is the information that specifies a protein stored in DNA in the sequence of bases
Mendel wanted to make sure his starting plants bred true, meaning the phenotypes of the offspring in each generation were always the same as the parent
What is the term for an observable trait of an organism? phenotype
If a DNA segment has the sequence GCTAA, what RNA sequence will be made from it? CGAUU
Vestigial structures Leftover structures that are no longer useful
Homologous structures Structures that are similar in different organisms, but have different functions
Analogous Structures Structures that have the same function in different organisms, but do not show common ancestry
Genetic Drift A random event that causes a change in a population: i.e. accidentally stepping on an ant hill
Types of natural Selection(Honors only) Stabilizing, directional, disruptive
Ribosome Where proteins are made
Created by: porterbiology