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arteriosclerosis "hardening of the arteries", forming of plaque buildup, medium or large arteries
atherosclerosis "hardening of the arteries", forming of plaque buildup, any artery
ischemia lack of O2 to a tissue/organ, can be brought back with recirculation
LDL takes cholesterol & deposits it into the artery walls, "bad cholesterol", less than 130mg/dl
HDL takes cholesterol thats removed from artery walls & takes to liver to be excreted, "good cholesterol", greater thatn 35 mg/dl
total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dl
triglycerides should be 200-300 mg/dl
prevention strategies for CAD nutrition, physical fitness, adequate sleep, modify risk factors, avoid substance abuse, anxiety, stress management & CISM
Modifiable risk factors elevated blood lipids, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, sypertension & elevated hormone levels(BC)
not modifiable risk factors age, gender, heredity
systole each contraction of the heart
diastole each relaxation period after contraction of the heart
cardiac output blood pumped in 1 min, = stroke vol x heart rate
stroke volume blood pumped in 1 stroke/contraction
preload passive stretching force exerted on the ventricular mesucle @ end of diastole
afterload pressure the ventricular muscle must generate to overcome the increasing pressure of the aorta
contractility force @ which muscles shorten/contract
starling's law increased blood to the heart leads to increased cardiac contrility because the centricles stretch
ejection fraction (EF) % of blood ejected during ventricular contraction
cardiac index measure of cardiac output
pulse deficit pulse is @ different rate than the ventricle is contracting (poor peripheral perfusion)
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
angioplasty insert catheter, pump up balloon, put in stent (mesh tube)
digitalis cardiac med, used for centuries, derived from foxglove plant, +inotropic(force), -chronotropic(rate), -dromotropic(speed), increased cardiac output, CHF, tachyarrhythmias
calcium channel blockers cardiac med, -inotropic(force), -chronotropic(rate), decreases AV conduction, dilates coronary arteries & peripheral vascular resistance, inhibits vascular spasm, for angina, SVT, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease & vascular headaches(migraines)
beta adrenergic blockers cardiac med, -chronotropic(rate), -inotropic(force), -dromotropic(speed), decreases myocardial oxygen consumption & peripheral vascular resistance, for angina, hypertension, dsysrhythmias & vascular headaches(migraines), usually end in "olol"
nitrates, nitrites cardiac meds, vasodilator(arteries & veins), decreases preload & myocardial oxygen demand, oral, sublingual & transdermal
angina symptoms pain lasts 3-5 mins, chest pressure, squeezing or heaviness, radiation patterns, anxiety, dyspnea, nausea &/or vomiting, diaphoresis
anaerobic metabolism cell work with no O2, uses sugars & other things available, not good
prinzmetal's angina varient type, caused by spasms in coronary muscles by arteries, don't know why, happens @ rest in cycles
unstable angina/preinfarction everything is longer & worse, much harder to get to go away, occurs @ rest, new onset
stable angina starts with activity & goes away when @ rest, predictable, often relieved w/ O2, nitro & rest, acute coronary syndrome
MONA treatment for cardiac chest pain, M-morphine, O-oxygen, N-nitro, A-aspirin (not in that order)
causes of angina pectoris CAD & spasms in the muscle of the arterial walls(rare)
causes of AMI(acute miocardial infarction) ASHD, prolonged spasm, embolism, hypoxia, shock, L ventricle most common place to occur, once dead cannot be brought back
signs & symptoms of AMI 70%-90% chest pain, could be "silent MI" though, radiation pattern, constant, no relief, Hx unstable angina common, ECG changes, dyspnea, anxiety, nausea &/or vomiting, diaphoreis, cyanosis, palpitations, dysrhythmias
collateral circulation effort of vessels around affected area to try to take over & oxygenate, only lasts short time
pleuritic chest pain often varies w/ inspiration & expiration, chest movement & cough
occlusion of right coronary artery supplies SA node, posterior & inferior walls, anterior R ventricle wall
occlusion of left circumflex coronary artery lateral wall, sometimes inferior & posterior wall
occlusion of left coronary artery massive anterolateral MI, anterior wall of L ventricle, lateral L ventricle wall, superior L ventricle
occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery anteroseptal MI, anterior wall
AMI complications arrhythmias, sudden death, congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock & rupture
thrombolytics (TBA) drugs used to dissolve blood clots, has to be done in under 6 hrs from onset of symptoms & under the age of 75
CABG, coronary artery bypass graft take artery from leg & re-route blood, only lasts about 5 yrs
pleural effusion abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural cavity
-blood supply to AV node variable, 60% of people it rises from R side -low O2 venous blood from heart drains into 5 different coronary veins & empties into R atrium via coronary sinus
Created by: tseitz