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Chapter 13

Studying Human Populations

Demography the study of human populations
Demographic transition a model of the changes in a region's population as it industrializes, it takes from one to three generations to cycle in most developed countries
Infrastructure basic facilities and services that support a community
Least Developed Countries countries that show few signs of development that have increasing death rates, and birth rates remain high
Age Structure the distribution of ages in a specific population at a given time
Survivorship The percentage of members of a group that are likely to survive to any given age
Infant Mortality the rate at which infants die
Life Expectancy the average age people of a given area live to
Death Rate the number of deaths each year
Fertility Rate the number of babies born per year per 1,000 women
Urbanization more people living in cities than rural areas
Migration the movement of people between areas
Immigration the movement of people into an area
emigration the movement of people out of an area
Demographic Transition Stage I pre-industrial condition: birth rate and death rate high, population is stable (Low Growth Rate)
Demographic transition II Population Explosion: death rates decline and birth rates increase as living conditions improve, population could double (Very High Growth Rate)
Demographic Transition III Population growth slows because birthrate decreases, birth rate and death rate become closer together. population stabilizes but population remains high (Low Growth Rate)
Demographic Transition IV Birth rate drops below replacement level so population begins to decrease (Zero Growth Rate)
72 years the number of years it takes for the human population to double at 1%
36 years the number of years it takes for a population to grow at 2%
Type I Survivorship people live to be very old
Type II Survivorship population has similar death rate at all ages
Type III poor human populations where many children die
What was the worldwide average life expectancy in 2000? more than 67 years
What was the worldwide life expectancy in 1900? about 40 years
What is the life expectancy for people in many developed countries? almost 80 years
What do most infants need in order to survive to be fed well and kept clean and warm
What factor most likely causes a low life expectance for a country? diminished food supply
Which factors might have the greatest effect on infant mortality in a country? parents access to education, food, fuel, and clean water
What is the main source of fuel for many poor countries? wood
When do people use fallen tree limbs for fuel? when the population is stable
When do people begin to cut down trees for fuelwood? When population grows quickly
Why is public water in some parts of the world unsafe to drink? there are parasites and other diseases in the water
Deadwood trees that are already dead or fallen
Stage I of "shortage of Fuelwood" a stable population that was using deadwood starts to grow rapidly
Stage II "shortage of Fuelwood" the deadwood does not accumulate fast enough to provide the population with enough fuel
Stage III "shortage of Fuelwood" the growing population begins to cut down living trees for fuel
Stage IV "shortage of Fuelwood" The area in which a population lives may become cleared of vegetation
Stage V "shortage of Fuelwood" the amount of available wood decreases
What purpose does fuelwood serve? a way to boil water and cook food
What is the result of an inadequate supply of fuelwood? many people can suffer disease and malnutrition
What are some reasons that Fertility rates can change? culture, laws, personal choice, or the availability of healthcare
How are human populations different from wildlife? Humans are widespread throughout the world, migrate more often over greater areas, and they exploit and manipulate their environment using technology and tools
Created by: tbostwick