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Biology Final

Parathyroid gland secrets PTH
Ovaries secretes estrogen
Testes secretes testosterone
Adrenal Gland secretes epinephrine
Pituitary Gland secretes growth hormones
Pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon
Calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels
Epinephrine prepares body for emergencies
Estrogen and Progesterone egg and more sex-hormone production
Insulin lowers blood glucose levels
Testosterone sperm and more sex-hormone production
TSH controls the thyroid
Chromosomes separate sections of long strands of DNA, some organisms only have 16, while others may have hundreds
Codominance both traits are expressed without blending characteristics
Gametes haploid cells that unite to form diploid cells at fertilization
Incomplete dominance both traits are expressed with blending of characteristics
Oogenesis process that forms eggs for sexual reproduction
Spermatogenesis process that forms sperm for sexual reproduction
Vagina birth canal composed of cervix and this accessory organ
Active transport goes against the concentration gradient to cross the cell membrane
Cytosol watery substance inside of the cell
Facilitated diffusion requires a channel or carrier protein in order to cross the cell membrane
Flagellum whip-like structure used for movement
Hypertonic solution higher concentration of solutes outside the cell compared to inside
Isotonic solution same solution concentration inside and outside of cell
Messenger RNA carries the codon sequences outside the nucleus for protein synthesis
Mitochondria Produces energy in the cell via cellular respiration
Nucleus control center of the cell
Ribosomes where protein assembly occurs
Amphibia "double life"
Annelida segmented worm
Anura frogs
Aves birds
Carnivora lions, tigers, and bears (oh my)
Crocodilia alligators
Marsupials pouched mammals
Mollusca octopus
Osteichthyes fish
Platyhelminthes flatworm
Proifera sponge
Primates have opposable thumbs
Proboscidea animals with trunks
Rodentia gnawing animals, incisors never stop growing
Oxytocin hormone that stimulates uterine contractions to move the baby through the birth canal
Progesterone delivers sperm to the female;hormone that stimulates blood flow to the uterus to prepare a home for the developing embryo
Endoplasmic reticulum used for synthesizing new material and as part of the transportation system
Golgi body manufacturing facility that processes and packages new materials
What type of photoreceptor allows you to see color? cones
Which section of the brain keeps you awake and filters information? thalamus
Which section of the brain has 2 hemispheres and controls your conscious activities? cerebrum
During which trimester is oxytocin released from the pituitary gland? 3rd
During which trimester is the nervous system complete and the heart is S-shaped? 1st
During which trimester are hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows developed and the mother can feel movement? 2nd
During which trimester can the baby's heartbeat be heard with a stethoscope? 2nd
During which trimester is the baby's face mostly developed and the baby has learned to suck? 1st
Which photoreceptor allows you to see light, especially low-level light? rods
What type of impulse is a nerve impulse? electrochemical
What do lacrimal glands produce? tears
Which type of psychotropic drug increases body activity and is usually psychologically addictive? stimulants
Which type of psychotropic drug causes euphoria and is physically addictive? narcotics
What is causing an easy and painless death to end suffering called? euthanasia
Before birth, where do babies get their nourishment and what supplies the nourishment? mothe/placenta
What is the killing of an unborn child? abortion
What is the surgical removal of a baby? Cesarean section
What is the energy currency used in the body? ATP
Which type of organism, autotroph or hetertroph, is a producer? autotroph
Which type of energy production has two types of fermentation and does NOT require oxygen? anaerobic
What are Biblical "kinds" based upon? reproduction
What do carnivores eat? meat
What do fish use to control their depth in the water? swim bladder
What is the job in nature of most bacteria? decomposing
Which type of tropism is the response to light? phototropism
What is one way to replace or add minerals to the soil? crop rotation, fertilize, mulch
Name one of the two men who discovered DNA in 1953. Watson/Crick
Write an example of homozygous alleles, like for tall plants or for green plants. TT or gg or YY or tt
Write and example of heterozygous alleles, like for tall plants or for green plants. Tt or Gg or Yy
What are small sections of DNA called that represent the instructions for a specific protein that leads to a specific trait? genes
What are organisms called that pass a gene on for a trait but do not have the characteristics of that gene? carriers
Who is known as the 'Father of Genetics'? Mendel
List 4 of the 7 minor senses. Touch, taste, smell, pain, heat, cold, pressure
What are the two components of the Central Nervous System? Brain and spinal cord
What determines how bad a spinal cord injury is? The extent of the damage, location, swelling, and whether or not the cell body dies
Why are spinal cord injuries so dangerous? When the spinal cord gets severed, it cannot repair itself and all feeling and control is lost below the break.
List 2 parts of the outer ear. Auricle, external auditory canal, eardrum, (tympanic membrane)
List 2 parts of the middle ear. Hammer, anvil, and stirrup (malleus, incus, and stapes
List 2 of the meninges (covering of the brain). Dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid membrane
Explain what happens with your olfactory receptors when you walk into and stay in a room that has a bad odor. They become accommodated and stop sending the signal to you brain--you no longer detect the odor
Why does a person sometimes like the taste of things as they get older that they strongly disliked when they were younger? Taste buds are damaged or die and are not reproduced as much as you get older; fewer taste buds mean less ability to distinquish tastes
Why do we have either good night vision or good color vision? You have a limited number of rods and cones; more cones means better color vision but you will have fewer rods for night vision and vice versa.
Explain how negative feedback loops work. React to a change outside of regular ranges for homeostasis and generate an opposite response to return the body to acceptable ranges.
List the two-fold purpose of the male reproductive system. Make and deliver sperm
List teh primary female reproductive organ and 2 accessory organs. Ovaries; fallopian tubes, cervix, vagina, and breasts
96% of births are vaginal. What part of the baby is pointed downward and serves as a wedge to open the birth canal? Head
What is the difference between how long men are able to reproduce and how long women are able to reproduce? Men--from puberty until death. Women--from puberty until menopause occurs
Why are all cells roughly the same size, why don't they get bigger? If a cell gets too large it cannot get enough food to sustain itself because its surface area-to-volume is too small
List 5 phases, in order, of mitosis and meiosis. Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
List three uses of mitosis. repair, growth, replacement, asexual reproduction
Explain what P1, F1, and F2 are and what Mendel learned from them. P1--Parent generation (all tall) F1--first generation of offspring (all tall) F2--second generation of offspring (3/4th tall and 1/4th short)
Explain what makes you, you. Genetics, environment, and choices-- God also moves in each area and makes changes as needed
What are dominant and recessive and how do they relate to each other? Traits may be expressed or masked. Dominant traits mask recessive traits whenever both are present. Recessive traits can only be expressed if there aren't any dominant traits.
Name the 7 levels of classification, in order. Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
Name 2 reasons that Latin is used for scientific names. Not used anymore, doesn't change, scientists are familiar with it
List 2 causes of cancer. Radiation, carcinogen, chemicals
List 2 treatments used for cancer. Radiation, chemicals, surgery
Name 2 reasons the Lord may allow suffering and disease. Sin, to reach the individual, to reach others, to bring glory to God
Name 2 ways to reduce your risk of cancer. Don't smoke (or use other carcinogens), use sunscreen, limit time outdoors, etc.
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil, fertilization is the uniting of gametes to produce a zygote.
What are the 2 functions of roots? Anchor, absorb nutrients, transport substances, store food
Explain how and why leaves change color. As the length of day shortens, the chlorophyll dies and the green pigment fades leaving the original color of the leaves to show through.
Name 2 important uses of water for plants. Photosynthesis, trugor pressure, hydrolysis, transport materials.
Why do we force some plants to reproduce asexually and others to reproduce sexually? Asexually to keep the same characteristics from generation to generation; sexually to introduce more variety
What are the three social castes among insects? Queen, workers, drones
Why is animal blood red? It contains hemoglobin, which is red
Name the two types of feathers. Down and Contour
How are birds able to digest food when it hasn't been chewed? They have a gizzard they load with rocks to grind food.
List two types of hair that mammals have. Guard and underhair
List two ways that snakes capture their food. Constriction, venom, and swallow whole
Bonus: How many heart chambers do fish, amphibians, mammals have? 2, 3, and 4
Bonus: Name the third part of the outer ear or the third part of the middle ear. Auricle, external auditory canal, eardrum (tympanic membrane) OR Hammer, anvil, or stirrup
Bonus: How much ATP does the average adult use in one day? 150 kg
Bonus: If you cross a homozygous dominant gene with a heterozygous gene, what will be the resulting ratios of phenotypes and genotypes? Phenotype--4:0 (100/0) Genotype--2:2 (50/50)
Created by: ecs9