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Adult Health Nursing

Ch 4 musculoskeletal MEL

QuestionAnswer
Ankylosis Fixation of a joint, often abnormal position, resulting from destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone
Arthrocentesis Puncture of the joint with the needle to draw fluid; perform to obtain synovial fluid for diagnostic purposes
Arthrodesis Surgical fusion of the joint
Arthroplasty Surgical repair or refashioning of one or both sides, parts, or specific tissues within a joint
Bipolar hip replacement Hemi-arthroplasty; prosthetic implant used to replace the femoral head and neck
Blanching test A test of the rate of Capillary refill; blanching means to cause to become pale by applying digital pressure
Callous Bony deposits formed between and around the broken ends of a fractured bone during healing
Colles' fracture Fracture of the distal portion of the radius within 1 inch of the joint of the wrist
Compartment syndrome Pathologic condition, progressive development of arterial compression and reduces blood supply to an extremity, increased pressure from external devices (casts, bulky dressings) causing decreased blood flow, resulting in ischemic tissue necrosis
Crepitus Sounds that resembles the crackling noise heard when rubbing hair between fingers; associated with gas gangrene, rubbing of bone fragments, crackles of consolidated area of the lung in pneumonia
Fibromyalgia Chronic pain syndromes of unknown etiology causes pain in muscles, bones, or joins
Kyphosis Abnormal condition of the vertebrate column; increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine
Lordosis Increase in the curve at the lumbar space region that throws the shoulder back, making the appearance of lordly or kingly
Open reduction with internal fixation ORIF; surgical procedure allowing fracture alignment under direct visualization while using various internal fixation devices applied to the bone
Paresthesia Any subjective sensation, such as a prickling pins and needles feeling or numbness
Scoliosis Curvature of the spine usually consisting of 2 curves, original abnormal curve and compensatory curve in the opposite direction
Sequestrum Fragment of neurotic bone that is partially or entirely detached from the surrounding or adjacent healthy bone
Subluxation Partial dislocation
Tophi Calculi containing sodium urate deposits that develop in periarticular fibrous tissue; typically found in patients with gout
Volkmann's contracture Permanent contracture with clawhand, flexion of wrist and finger, and atrophy of the forearm; can occur as a result of compartment syndrome
Abduction Lateral movement of limbs or eye away from the median plane of the body or lateral bending of the head or trunk
DVT Complication of immobility and orthopedic surgery, prophylaxis with heparin/Coumadin
Epiphysis The end portion of a long bones, RBCs produced here
Excitability Muscles ability to respond to stimulus
Extension Movement that brings the part of the limb into or toward a straight condition
Flexion The act of bending or conditioning of being vent in contrast to extension, decreasing the angle between 2 bones
Intra-articular Within a joint
Intercostal muscles Muscles between the ribs
Ligament Connective tissue that joins bones with other bones
Orthopedics Branch of medicine dealing with prevent or correction of locomotor structures (joints, muscles, fascia, ligaments, cartilage)
Pectoralis major Fan shaped muscle that covers the anterior chest
Periosteum Protective covering of the bone shaft, fibrous
Pubis Anterior of pelvis
Sacrum Posterior of pelvis
Tendon Connective tissue that joins muscles to bone
Temporomandibular Pertaining to the temporal and mandibular bones, especially important in dentistry
Synarthrosis No movement; fibrous
Amphiarthrosis Slight movement, ribs,
Diarthrosis Free movement, fingers, synovial
Structure bones 1 class - long, extremities
Structure bones 2 class - short, hands and feet
Structure bones 3 class - flat, skull and sternum
Structure bones 4 class - irregular, vertebrae
Adduction Movement of a limb or eye toward the median plane of the body
Muscle stimulus What a muscle cell is adequately stimulated, it will contract
Muscle tone Skeletal muscles are in constant state of readiness for action
Types of body movements Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, supination, pronation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
Rheumatoid arthritis Medications; Salicylates, NSAIDs, Cox -2 inhibitors, potent and slow anti-inflammatory, DIS/Mod antirheumatoid
Acute exacerbation Acute worsening
Created by: diamondgirljaz