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The Basics and Im balances

Sodium is ....... The most abundant electrolyte found in ECF
Its normal levels are .... 135-145 mEq/L
When sodium imbalance occurs it triggers ... the hypothalamus which triggers thirst
Fluid intake occurs which increases ... the volume of the ECF and decreases the osmolality
The hormones ADH is secreted .... to retain water to dilute the sodium
An increase in ECF is going to cause.... increased blood pressure
The kidneys are activated .... to release the excess sodium
Water in the cells will follow sodium so .... water will leave the cells to the ECF causing cellular dehydration
Cellular dehydration leads to ..... neurologic symptoms
Signs/symptoms of Hypernatremia are .... confusion, thirst, flushed skin, low urine output, restlessness, increased heart rate, convulsions, and postural hypotension
Caused by ...... vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis and insufficient ADH
Treatment for hypernatremia is ... correcting fluid imbalance
Low level of sodium is called .... hyponatremia
Hyponatremia is either a .... deficiency of sodium or dilutional ( hypervolemia)
Causes of hyponatremia are .... vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis with only water replacement, excessive secretion of ADH like in SIADH, CHF, cirrhosis
Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia are ..... confusion, headache, muscle weakness, fatigue, abdominal cramps, and orthostatic hypotension
Treatment for hyponatremia is ..... restriction of fluids while the kidneys excrete excess water, Lasix, sodium replacement therapy
Potassium is ....... found in the ICF
Its main role is to .... maintain fluid volume in the cell, cardiac/skeletal/smooth muscle contractions & nerve impulse conduction, metabolism of carbs and proteins(insulin and K+ necessary to move glucose into ICF)
Normal potassium levels are .... 3.5-5 mEq/L
When K+ levels rise it is called .... Hyperkalemia
Hyperkalemia is caused by ...... renal failure, DKA, adrenal insufficiency
Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia are .... tachycardia, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps, weakness, paresthesia, anxiety, abdominal cramps, decreased urine output
Treatment for hyperkalemia is ... Kayexalate (promotes excretion of excess K+ through the GI tract), IV calcium gluconate to decrease the effect of K+ on the myocardium
When K+ levels fall it is called .... hypokalemia
Hypokalemia is caused by ....... vomiting, diarrhea, NG suctioning, potassium wasting diuretics, corticosteroids
Hypokalemia may result in ...... potentially fatal heart rhythms
Signs and symptoms of hypokalemia are .... dysrhythmias, dyspnea, shallow respirations, confusion, muscle cramps, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, abdominal distention, polyuria, nocturia
Treatment for hypokalemia is ....... potassium replacement by oral or IV
Created by: valina1375