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Acid Base Imbalance

Acidosis vs. Alkalosis

Water intake is controlled by? Thirst (thirst is a late sign of hypovolemia)
What hormone regulates water reabsorption? ADH
What are sign/symptoms of Hypovolemia? tachycardia, decreased blood pressure, cool & dry skin, weakness, confusion, decreased cardiac output
What can cause water loss? hemorrhage, burns, diarrhea, diabetes insipidus, vomiting, sweating, and diuretic/laxative medication abuse
What are signs/symptoms of Hypervolemia? wheezing, dry cough, edema, increased respirations, dyspnea, increased blood pressure, decreased pulse
What are causes of fluid imbalance? suctioning, fistulas, steroids, diuretics, HF, kidney failure, diarrhea, vomiting, burns, diabetes insipidus, SIADH.
Acidosis affects what systems in the body? Cardiac, CNS, neuromuscular, and respiratory
What are signs/symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis? tachycardia, headache, sweating, lethargy and confusion, hypoventilation (can be a cause)
ABG's of Respiratory Acidosis? pH levels decreased, CO2 levels increased
What is Metabolic Acidosis? The breakdown of fatty acids causing an increase in pH
What are causes of Metabolic Acidosis? alcohol poisoning, aspirin toxicity, DKA, starvation, excessive exercise, seizures, diarrhea, shock, renal failure, DKA
ABG's of Metabolic Acidosis? pH level is decreased HCO-3 is decreased
What are signs/symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis? Changes in LOC, headache, vomiting, anorexia, muscle weakness, hyperventilation, Kussmaul breathing,
What is Respiratory Alkalosis? Excessive loss of carbon dioxide through rapid respirations (hyperventilation)
Causes of Respiratory Alkalosis? fear, anxiety, fever, CNS tumors, medications such as progesterone and epinephrine, gram negative septicemia
What are sign/symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis? rapid deep breathing, increased heart rate, dizziness, tingling or numbness of the fingers. ASSESSMENT OF THE RATE AND DEPTH OF RESPIRATIONS IS THE KEY OBSERVATION FOR THIS CONDITION.
What can cause Respiratory Acidosis? respiratory diseases like pneumonia, drowning, drug overdose, obesity, chest wall injury, acute respiratory failure.
ABG's of Respiratory Alkalosis? pH levels increase CO2 is decreased
Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis? prolonged NG suctioning, excessive vomiting, diuretics
What are the signs/symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis? headache, irritability, lethargy, changes in LOC, confusion, slow and shallow respirations, cramps, tachycardia
Normal pH lab value .... 7.35-7.45
Normal PaCO2 lab value .... 45-35
Normal HCO3 lab value .... 22-26
Physiologic buffers are.... renal and pulmonary
Chemical buffers are .... phosphate, protein and bicarbonate
What hormone promotes water excretion? Aldosterone
Created by: valina1375