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patent (airway) open or unblocked, functioning all the way to the cellular level including pulmonary, blood flow & neuro stimulation
mucous membrane thin layer connective tissue lining many body cavities air passes thru, has small mucus secretin glands, 100% humidified & sterile, warmed, lubricates & protects
gag reflex retching or striving to vomit, reflex triggered by touching back of soft palate or throat
epiglottis leaf shaped, flexible cartilage, hangs over larynx, connected to hyoid bone, prevents food & liquid from entering larynx, important landmark for ET tube
Hyoid bone only bone in body not attached to rest of skeleton, connected to epiglottis
vallecula depression or pocket formed by base of the bongue & epiglottis
larynx triangle shaped, connects pharynx(at epiglottis) 2 trachea(lower border of cricoid cartilage), inferior hyoid bone, anterior esophagus, made of thyroid & cricoid cartilage, vocal cords & arytenoid folds
thyroid cartilage/"Adam's Apple" main laryngeal cartilage, consists of 2 large shield shaped pieces, form anterior wall & give it's V shape, posterior wall open & is muscle
cricothyroid membrane situated between top of cricoid & bottom of thyroid cartilage in larynx, site for surgical & advanced airway placement
cricoid cartilage below thyroid cartilage, attached to 1st ring of tracheal cartilage, only complete ring with posterior bulky part, narrowest part in children
sellick maneuver putting pressure on cricoid cartilage to occlude esophagus & prevent regurgitation
arytenoid cartilages 2 pyramid shaped, attached to vocal folds & pharyngeal wall, open & close vocal cords, landmark for ET tube
glottis slitlike opening between vocal cords leading into trachea, in adult narrowest part
vagus nerve richly lines larynx, stimulation of pharyngeal & laryngeal mucous membranes can cause bradycardia, hypotension & decreased respiratory rate, sends signals to medullla oblongata & pons in brain to control breathing
serous membrane/pleura 2 layer epithelial membrane that lines body cavities & covers surfaces of organs, form sac & includes 2 layers
apex top of lungs
hilum slits in ea lung where bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels & nerves are firmly anchored in meshwork of dense connective tissue in2 lung, form "root of the lung", only spot where lungs are anchored
visceral pleura membrane closely covering the lungs
parietal pleura lines inner surface of chest wall, diaphragm & mediastinum
pleural space seperates parietal & visceral pleura in lungs, contains just a few drops of pleural fluid to prevent friction as lung tissue expands & contracts
external respiration involves exchange of gases between circulating blood & air & is carried on by expansion & contraction of lungs
internal respiration involves exchange of dissolved gases between circulating blood & interstitial fluids in peripheral tissues
cellular respiration use of O2 by cells in the process of metabolism
diaphragm largest, wide muscule separating thoracic/chest cavity from abdominal cavity, slants upward anteriorly & dome shaped when relaxed, contracts downward
ventilation process of moving air in & out of lungs, includes inspiration & expiration
process of breathing initiated by respiratory center in medulla oblongata & pons in brain, respond to increased levels of CO2 in blood
minute volume volume of air exchanged in 1 min, about 6000mL - 16,000mL average, necessary to remove CO2 & bring in sufficient supplies of O2
tidal volume air inhaled & exhaled in single respiration, 500mL - 800mL, 12-20x per min
dead air space air remaining in trachea & bronchi unavailabe for gas exchange, about 150 mL
physiological dead space development of additional dead space from diseases such as COPD or atelectasis
total lung capacity about 6L in average adult male,
PO2 or PCO2 abbreviation for partial pressure of O2 or carbon dioxide
medulla oblongata & pons in brainstem, control rate & depth of breathing, connected to respiratory muscles by vagus nerve, pons 2ndary control center if medulla fails, also controls expiration
hypoxia increased respirations, insufficient oxygenation of the cells
hiccup sudden inspiration caused by spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm & intermittent spastic closure of glottis
sighing incoluntary slow deep breath followed by prolonged expiration, hyperinflates the lungs & opens atelectatic alveoli, normally about once per min
cheyne-stokes breathing regular pattern of gradually incerasing rate & tidal volume followed by gradual decrease & then short period of apnea, associated with brainstem insult
kussmaul breathing deep gasping respirations, common in diabetic coma
biot's respirations group of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea, seen with increased intracranial pressure
central neurogenic hyperventilation pattern of deep rapid respirations similar to kussmaul breathing, also indicative of increased intracranial pressure
agonal breathing pattern of slow shallow irregular respirations, results from brain anoxia
pulsus paradoxus systolic B/P decreases more than 10mmHg during inspiration, seen in COPD, severe asthma, cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, CHF, AMI & tension pneumothorax
hypoxemia insufficient oxygenation of the blood
anoxia insufficiant oxygenation of the tissue
pulse deficit peripheral pulse is @ different rate than the ventricle is contracting, poor peripheral profusion
ARDS adult/acute respiratory distress syndrome, non-cardiac w/ cardiac signs, pulmonary edema, trauma, contusion, spasm, sepsis
respirations exchange of gases between the body cells & the atmosphere
dysphonia difficulty speaking
aphonia cannot speak
atelectasis dead space, collapse of alveoli
dyspnea shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Created by: tseitz



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