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Chapter 24&25&26&27 Vocabulary

Sahel the region in africa just south of the sahara
colonialism the system by which countries set up colonies to secure sources of raw materials and markets for their products
plateau an area of high flat land
escarpment a steep cliff that separates two level areas of differing elevations
chaparral a type of natural veggitation that is adapted to mediterranean climebates, small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub
savanna a tropical grassland with scattered trees, located in the warm lands nearest the equador
oral history history passed down by word of mouth
nomadic herding the practice of moving flocks to different pastures throughout the year
leaching the dissolving and washing away of nutrients in the soil
land degradation reduction in the productive potentail of the land
population density the average number of people living in a given area
delta land formed by soil in the water that is dropped as the river slows and enters the sea
fellaheen grow impressive crops without the aid of modern machinery
sandstorm blows hot air,dust and grit into the nile valley
bazaar arab open-sir markets
basin irrigation good for growing crops
reservoir natural or artificial lake used to store water for human needs
perennial irrigation one that provider water for agriculture all through the year
capital money that is invested in building and supporting new industries
wadi Dry riverbeds and sharp gullies
caravan large groups of merchants who have joined together to travel in safety
medina usually are centered around a great mosque
souk market areas ind out from the mosque
shifting agriculture The practice of farming a piece of land until all the soil's nutrients are gone, then moving to another piece of land
forage Food for grazing animals
deforestation The cutting down of forests
desertification The transformation of arable land to desert
refugee A person who flees his or her country to escape poor treatment
landlocked Entirely or almost entirely surrounded by land
inland delta Area of lakes and streams where people grow cotton, rice, and vegetables
coup Sudden political takeovers
ancestor worship The belief that respected and honoring one's ancestors will cause the ancestors to live in the spirit world after death
animism The belief that everything in nature has a spirit
world bank an agency of the united nations that provides loans to countries for development projects
international monetary fund an agency of the united nations that provides loans to countries for development projects
structural adjustment program Set of guidelines that are supposed to help make a country's economy work better
watershed A dividing ridge between two basins
mercenary Professional soldier hired by a foreign country
barter Exchange of goods without the use of money
harambee A policy of cooperation adopted in Kenya after independence to encourage economic growth
pyrethrum A pesticide produced from certain flowers
malnutrition Disease caused by lack of food or an unbalanced diet
strategic value Importance of a place or thing for nations planning military actions
ethnocracy A system of government in which one ethnic group rules others
villagization A political movement by which rural people are forced to move to towns and work on collective farms
apartheid Formerly in the Republic of South Africa, the policy of strict racial segregation
segregation The separation of the races
sanction An action taken by the international community to punish a country for unacceptable behaviors
enclave A country completely surrounded by another country
white flight The departure of white people from a region
land redistribution A policy by which land is taken from those who own large amounts and redistributed to those who have little of none
Created by: laurengrawunder