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Operant Condition

QuestionAnswer
Who was Edward Thorndike Behaviorist Originated the idea of instrumental learning and studied learning by examining the trial and errors behavior of cats in their attempts to escape from puzzle boxes
What are some of Thorndike's Laws? Low of Recency, Law of Use, Law of Effect
Law of Recency The most recent response if likely to occur
Example of law of recency When you choose restaurants, you choose one that you've always gone to because it becomes a routine
Law of Use Connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued
Example of Law of Use When you go to the gym and look for certain machines to use but get mad when someone is using the machine you usually use.
Law of Effect Behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely; behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Who was B.F. Skinner? Attempted to expand on Thorndike's original theories of instrumental learning. Proposed that learning process has a very predictable response to rewards and punishments. His work shows how those responses to behavior influenced future behaviors
What was majority of Skinner's work was done on? Rats and pigeons in elaborated boxes that he designed and called "skinner boxes"
What is Operant Conditioning? The process of learning to associate a behavior with a consequence. This typically results in behavior that maximizes reinforcing and minimizes punishing events
Reinforcement Any outcome/response that increases the future probability of the most recent behavior
Punishment Any outcome/response that decreases the frequency of the preceding behavior
What makes something reinforcing or punishing? Biologically useful, intrinsically satisfying, restores equilibrium
Positive Reinforcement An introduction of a pleasurable stimulus after a behavior, which will increase the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior
Negative Reinforcement A removal of (or the avoidance of) an aversive stimulus after a behavior, which will increase the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior
Positive Punishment An introduction of an aversive stimulus after a behavior, which will decrease the likelihood of the future occurrence of the behavior
Negative Punishment A removal of (or a threatening to remove) a pleasurable stimulus after a behavior, which will decrease the likelihood of the future occurrence of a behavior
Extinction A return of a behavior to baseline when reinforcement/punishment stops
Generalization Increasing or decreasing similar responses due to punishment or reinforcement
Discrimination Only increasing or decreasing the specific response that was reinforced or punished
Primary reinforcers A reinforcer that automatically increases the likelihood of a response
Secondary reinforcers A reinforcer that has been learned through classical conditioning to increase the likelihood of a response
Shaping Rewarding successive approximations of a behavior that's being reinforced
Chaining Reinforcing combinations of learned behaviors that are paired together
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement for every correct response
Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement Occasional reinforcement for a correct response
Fixed Ratio Reward for a behavior after "X" responses. Causes faster responders to get more rewards. Produces high rates of responding but quick extinction when the reinforcement is removed
Variable Ratio Reward for a behavior after a variable and unpredictable numbers of responses. Gambling is a great example of this reward system. It is very hard to extinguish after the connection is made
Fixed Interval Reward for a behavior after "X' amount of time has passed. The responses are rather sparse in down time, but get more vigorous right before time X
Variable Interval Reward for a behavior after a variable and unpredictable amount of time. This causes slow, steady responding
What is the effectiveness of reinforcement? All things being equal, most people learn fastest with immediate reinforcement or immediate punishment. Punishment tends to be less effective than reinforcement except when temporarily suppressing undesirable behavior.
Created by: 100001362536770