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Fluid & Electrolytes

Nursing review

QuestionAnswer
1) Solvents move from ____________ concentration to ____________ concentration. lower, higher
2) _____________ is when water moves across permeable membrane in order to maintain equilibrium. osmosis
3) ____________ is when molecules moves across permeable membrane in order to maintain equilibrium. diffusion
4) What is fluid volume overload? Excessive sodium intake & compromised regulatory system, possible from CHF, cirrhosis, or SIADH (endocrine)
5) What can lead to hypervolemia (fluid volume overload)? excessive sodium intake,
6) What are the s/s of fluid volume overload? pitting edema with tight shiny skin, weight gain, moist crackles, dyspnea, cough, bulging fontanels, JVD, headache, agitation, confusion, VS-increased BP,P, & Resp
7) What nursing interventions would you implement for fluid volume overload? low Na diet, fluid restrictions, monitor I&O, elevate affected extremities, elevate head of bed, Pt. education
8) What is fluid volume deficit? loss of water or sodium from vomiting, diarrhea, tubes, sweating, diuretics, or decreased intake from NPO status, dysphagia,
9) What can lead to hypovolemia (fluid volume deficit)? vomiting, diarrhea, decreased intake
10) What are the s/s of fluid volume deficit? concentrated urine, tachycardia, tachypnea, electrolyte imbalance, labs= increased Hct & BUN, dry skin & mucous membranes, weak, restless, confused,
11) What nursing interventions would you implement for fluid volume deficit? encourage fluids, oral care, skin care, manage vomiting & diarrhea, cover wounds, isotonic fluids, Pt. education
12) What is the difference between isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solution? hypotonic= less concentration of particles than plasma, isotonic= same concentration as plasma, htpertonic= higher concentratioin of particles than plasma
13) What are the s/s of IV infiltration? swelling at site, coolness, decreased flow rate, c/o discomfort.
14) What is the purpose of IV fluids? supply nutrients, fluids, meds; provide a line for dialysis; transfer blood products
15) What is the normal serum calcium (Ca) level? 8-10 mg/dL
16) What is hypocalcaemia? serum calcium level less than 8 mg/dL
17) What are the s/s of hypocalcaemia? irritability, confusion, muscle twitching & cramps, decreased BP & HR, diarrhea, positive for Chvostek's & Trousseau's signs
18) What can cause hypocalcaemia? poor intake of calcium or vitamin D, malabsorption from GI tract, hypoparathyroidism, renal failure
19) What is the tx for hypocalcaemia? administer appropriate calciumsalts or IV calcium chloride, encourage oral calcium & vitamin D intake
20) What is hypercalcaemia? serum calcium level greater than 1o mg/dL
21) What are the s/s of hypercalcaemia? weakness, constipation, anorexia, nausea, dehydration, bradycardia, increased BP & HR, confusiion, lethargy
22) What can cause hypercalcaemia? hyperparathyroidism, increased reabsorption from bone, bone destruction, malignancy,
23) What is the tx for hypocalcaemia? administer biphosphonates, decrease calcium & vitamin D intake, administer lasix,increase fluid intake
24) What is the normal serum level of sodium? 135-145 mEq/L
25) What is hyponatremia? serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
26) What are the s/s of hyponatremia? nausea,vomiting, cramping, confusion, drowsiness, headache
27) What can cause hyponatremia? sweating, hemorrhage, hyperglycemia, diuretics
28) What is the tx for hyponatremia? fluid restriction, oral sodium supplements, increase dietary sodium, hypertonic IV solution
29) What is hypernatremia? serum sodium level higher than 145 mEq/L
30) What are the s/s of hypernatremia? thirt, dry sticky mucous membranes, decreased neural activity, lethargy, stupor, coma
31) What can cause hypernatremia? excessive salt intake, fever, diarrhea, fluid loss,renal failure
32) What is the tx for hypernatremia? sodium restrictions, IV fluids,
33) What is the normal serum level of potassium? 3.5-5.3 mEq/L
34) What is hypokalemia? serum potassium level lower than 3.5 mEq/L
35) What are the s/s of hypokalemia? cardiac dysrythmias, decreased GI motility, muscle weakness,
36) What can cause hypokalemia? alkalosis, vomiting, diarrhea, diuretic therapy, wound drainage, prolonged NG suctioning
37) What is the tx for hypokalemia? administer potassium, use potassium sparing diuretics, in crease vitamin k intake
38) What is hyperkalemia? serum potassium levels greater than 5.3 mEq/L
39) What are the s/s of hyperkalemia? irritability, confusion, anxiety, muscle twitches. diarrhea
40) What can cause hyperkalemia? salt substitutes, altered excretion, excessive salt intake, acidosis, severe tissue damage
41) What is the tx for hyperkalemia? administer kayexalate, dialysis oif extreme,
47) How do you determine how long an IV will run? divide the total number of millimeters by the hourly infusion
42) What is the normal value of pH? 7.35-7.45
43) What is the normal value of HCO3? 22-26mEq/L
44) What is the normal value of CO2 (PCO2)? 35-45 mmHG
45) What is acidosis? blood pH less than 7.35; If respiratory- CO2 greater than 45, if metabolic- HCO3 less than 22.
What are the s/s of acidosis? think depressed body systems; lethargy, flaccid paralysis, delayed electrical conduction, (resp. acid.-pale, cyonotic, rapid shallow breathing)(meta. acid- deep rapid breathing, warm flushed skin)
What is alkalosis? blood ph is higher than 7.45; if respiratory than CO2 is greater than 45; if metabolic HCO3 is less than 26
46) What are the s/s of alkalosis? think excitable or irritated body systems; increased activity, anxiety, tetany, seizures, muscle twitching & cramping, increased HR, normal or low BP
What is metabolic acidosis? acid build up in body is beyond its ability to neutralize, excess acid- diabetes mellitus & starvation - ketoacidosis; shock- lactic acidosis;
How is metabolic acidosis treated? treat underlying cause; correct electrolyte imbalances & monitor for complications
What is respiratory acidosis? excess CO2 builds up when lungs ability to blow off CO2 is impaired;
How is respiratory acidosis treated? treat underlying cause; maintain patent airway, O2 therapy, pulmonary hygiene, ventillation support correct electrolyte imbalances & monitor for compliocations
What is metabolic alkalosis? excess base builds up quicker or more than body can neutralize, loss of acid
How is metabolic alkalosis treated? treat underlying cause; correct electrolyte imbalances & monitor for complications
What is respiratory alkalosis? excessive loss of CO2 from lungs;
What causes metabolic acidosis? renal impairment- kidneys lose ability to reabsorb HCO3 and secrete Hydrogen ions; prolonged diarrhea=loss of HCO3
What causes respiratory acidosis? Anything that interferes with respiratory sufficiency & raises CO2 levels like pneumonia, atelectasis, COPD, aspiration, airway obstruction narcotic OD or overuse
What causes metabolic alkalosis? vomiting, gastric suctioning, thiazide diuretics, excessive use of baking soda or antacids
What causes respiratory alkalosis? extreme anxiety, sepsis, fever, mechanical ventilation
How is metabolic alkalosis treated? treat underlying cause; correct electrolyte imbalances & monitor for complications
Created by: Pumba76