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Chemistry

QuestionAnswer
The scientific system of writing numbers scientific notation
Give the scientific Notation of 1,000,000,000 10^9
Give the scientific notation of' 1,000,000 10^6
Give the scientific notation of 1,000 10^3
Give the scientific notation of 100 10^2
Give the scientific notation of 1 10^0
Give the scientific notation of 0.01 10^-2
Give the scientific notation of 0.000001 10^-6
Give the scientific notation of 0.000000001 10^-9
method to measure weight, length, and volume metric system
simple, logical, and efficient measurement system metric system
basic units of measurements of the metric system grams, liters, and meters
Basic measurement of weight grams (g)
Basic measure of weight liter (L)
Basic measure of distance meter (m)
Tera- abbreviation means? numerically T- 10^12 1 quadrillion times
Giga- abbreviation? means? numerically? G- 10^9 1 billion times
Mega- abbreviation? means? numerically M- 10^6 1 million times
kilo- abbreviation? means? numerically? k- 10^3 1 thousand times
hecto- abbreviation? means? nummerically? h- 10^2 1 hundred times
deka- abbreviation? means? numerically? D- 10^1 times
deci- abbreviation? means? numerically? d- 10^-1 1 tenth of
centi- abbreviation? means? numerically? c- 10^-2 1 hundredth of
milli- abbreviation? means? numerically? m- 10^-3 1 thousandth of
micro- abbreviation? means? numerically? u(backwards) 10^-6 1 millionth of
nano- abbreviation? means? numerically? n- 10^-9 1 billionth of
pico- abbreviation? means? numerically? p- 10^-12 1 trillionth of
femto- abbreviation? means? numerically? f- 10^-15 1 quadrillionth of
3 most common temperature systems Fahrenheit, Celsius, nad Kelvin
temperature measuring system used only in the United States, its territories,Belize, and Jamaica. Fahrenheit
Rarely used for any scientific measurements except body temperature. Fahrenheit
Zero degrees is the freezing point of sea water or heavy brine at sea level. Fahrenheit
32 degrees is the freezing point of pure water at sea level. Fahrenheit
212 degrees is the boiling point of pure water at sea level. Fahrenheit
Most people have a body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
temperature system used in the rest of the world and by the scientific community. Celsius/Centigrade
zero degrees is the freezing point of pure water at sea level. Celsius
100 degrees is the boiling point of pure water a sea level. Celsius
Most people have a body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius
Used only in the scientific community Kelvin
zero degrees is -273 degrees Celsius and is thought to be the lowest temperature achievable or absolute zero Kelvin
The freezing point of water is 273 Kelvin
The boiling point of water is 373 Kelvin
Basic building block of all molecules Atom
Atom's physical structure Nucleus
At the center of the atom and is composed of protons and neutrons Nucleus
When are atoms most stable? When an orbital is full
positive electrical charge protons
negative charge electrons
no charge neutrons
an atom that is electrically charged ion
an atom that has a positive charge cation
an atom that has a negative charge anion
defined by its properties matter
rows of the periodic table periods
columns of the periodic table groups
energy required to remove the outermost electron from the atom. ionization energy
ability to attract electrons electronegativity
what location is the alkali metals in the periodic table? What are the properties? Group 1 metals with one outermost electron. form 1+ ions
what location are the alkaline earth metals in the periodic table? what are the properties? Group 2 metals with two outermost electrons. Form 2+ ions
where are the transition metals located in the periodic table? Groups 3-10 Metals that usually form colored ions and solutions. Have multiple oxidation states.
Where are the Halogens located in the periodic table? Group 17 Nonmetals with seven outermost electrons. Form 1- ions
Where are the noble gases located in the periodic table? Group 18 Nonmetal gases that do not react because they have full outermost PELs
Two important numbers or properties of atoms that can be obtained from the periodic table are? atomic number & mass
number of protons in the nucleus, and it defines an atom of a particular element. atomic number
what is the atomic mass of an atom? average mass of each of that element's isotopes.
different kinds of the same atom that vary in weight Isotopes
What is it called when a an element or atom exists in combination with other elements? compound
How is an equation written> Reactants ----> Products
In any chemical reaction, an arrow between the reactants and the products is drawn out. What does the arrow symbolize? the direction of the reaction
what does the law of conservation of mass state? Mass cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical reaction. Therefore, once the reactants have been written and the products predicted, the equation must be balanced.
A state in which reactants are forming products at the same rate that products are forming reactants. Equilibrium
Name 4 ways to increase the reaction rate increase the temperature in the reaction, increase the surface area of the reactants, add a catalyst, or increase the concentrations of reactants.
If you increase the temperature in the reaction what happens? causes the particles to have a greater kinetic energy causing them to move faster. Contact is when the chemical reactions will occur.
What happens when you increase the surface area of the particles in the reaction? Gives the particles more opportunity to come into contact with one another.
accelerates a reaction by reducing the activation energy or the amount of energy necessary for a reaction to occur. catalyst
what happens when you increase the concentration of the reactants? It will cause more chance collisions between the reactants and produce more products.
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solution
can be a liquid in a liquid, a solid in a liquid, or a solid in a solid. solutions
name the four types of solutions compounds, alloys, amalgams, emulsions
Mixtures of different elements to create a single matter compound
solid solutions of metals to make a new one such as bronze, which is copper and tin, or steel, which is iron and carbon, tungsten, chromium, and manganese alloys
a specific type of alloy in which another metal is dissolved in mercury amalgams
mixtures of matter that readily separate such as water and oil. emulsions
How is percent concentration expressed? weight/weight; grams/grams weight/volume; grams/liters volume/volume; milliliters/liter **mg/100mL
How is Molar concentration expressed? a mole=6.02x10^23 mol/L
Name the five main types of chemical reactions synthesis decomposition combustion single replacement double replacement
two elements combine to form a product. 2K(+) + 2Cl(-) ---> 2KCL Synthesis
opposite of synthesis because it is the breaking of a compound into its component parts. NaCl ---> Na(+) + Cl(-) decoposition
self-sustaining, exothermic chemical reaction usually initiated by heat acting on oxygen and a fuel compound such as hydrocarbon. combustion
replacement reactions involve ionic compounds; consist of a more active metal reacting with an ionic compound containing a less active metal to produce a new compound single replacement
joining of one atom chemical bonding
electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions, or a cation and an anion. ionic bond
generally formed between a metal and a nonmetal ionic
formed when two atoms share electrons, generally in pairs, one from each atom. covalent bond
in a covalently bonded compound, if the electrons in the bond are shared equally, then the bond is termed ____. nonpolar
___ is based on the difference in eletronegativity values for the elements involved in the bond. polarity
NOT BONDING INTERACTIONS; Weaker forces of attraction between whole mlecules intermolecular forces
attraction for a hydrogen atom by a highly electronegative element. hydrogen bond
attraction of one dipole on one molecule for the dipole of another molecule dipole-dipole interactions
how is a dipole created? when an electron pair is shared unequally in a covalent bond between two atoms or elements
Created by: CountryMomma7