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# Electricity

TermDefinition
Alternating Current Current that alternates or changes direction. Mains electricity does this 50 times a second (50Hz)
Ammeter Measures the size of the current travelling through a circuit
Battery Two or more cells joined together
Cell Component that converts chemical potential energy into electrical energy
Circuit Continuous pathway through which electrons can flow
Conductor A substance whose electrons can travel freely (e.g. metals)
Conventional current The flow of current from positive to negative around a circuit
Current Flow of electrons around a circuit measure in amps (A)
Diode Component which only lets current travel in one direction
Direct current Current that only flows in one direction. Batteries produce d.c
Electricity Movement of electrons through a conductor
Electron flow The flow of negative charges from negative to positive around a circuit.
Fuse Thin wire which melts or "blows" and breaks a circuit if the current is too large.
Insulator A substance that does not conduct electricity (e.g. air, rubber)
Lamp Component that transforms electrical energy into light energy (and heat)
Ohmic component A component that obeys Ohm's Law: the current through it increase proportionately with the voltage across it. The resistance stays constant. Components are non-ohmic if the temperature increases at this increased resistance.
Parallel circuit A circuit where the current divides and passes through different loops or branches. The voltage is the same across branches.
Resistance A measure of how difficult it is for current to flow around a circuit or through a component. Measured in ohms (Ω)
Resistor A component that restricts the flow of current. Fixed-value resistors do not change their resistance but with variable resistors (rheostats) you can change the resistance
Series circuit A circuit composed of a single loop (only one path for the current to flow). The current is the same everywhere but the voltage is shared between components.
Switch Component which allows current to flow when it is closed
Voltage The difference in electrical energy between two points that make a current flow, measured in volts (V). Also called potential difference.
Voltmeter Measures the change in voltage as it passes through a component.
Wire Conductor which passes electricity easily from one part of a circuit to another.
Created by: DR1