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classical era

chapter 11

Musical Characteristics (p. 243) “The Age of Reason” •The philosophy that stressed emotional restraint, balance, clarity, symmetry, clear formal structure, and simplicity
Musical Characteristics (p. 243) “The Age of Reason” •Provided great contrast to Baroque music
Texture • Homophonic texture is favored over polyphonic texture, with great emphasis on lyrical melodies
Tonality • Music continued to be “tonal,” as it was in the Baroque period, and focused on major and minor keys
Tonality • Common chord progressions were used to provide harmony
Tonality • Modulations to new keys were common, stressing dissonance that led to resolution
Ornamentation • Less emphasis is placed on individuals ornamenting/improvising in compositions
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments •Strings (violin, viola, cello, double bass
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments •Woodwinds (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments • Brass (trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments • Percussion
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments • Keyboard (harpsichord, organ, pianoforte, which later develops into the modern piano)
Instruments (p. 243)Orchestral Instruments *The instrument families are the fundamental categories established by the Classical era
Pianoforte •The pianoforte took the place of the harpsichord (basso continuo) and also became a solo instrument as well as an equal member in chamber ensembles
Instrumental Genres (p. 244) Sonata •A multi-movement work for one or two instruments and accompaniment, or for solo keyboard (usually 3 or 4 movements)
Instrumental Genres Symphony •A multi-movement work for strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion (usually 4 movements)
Instrumental Genres-Concerto •A multi-movement work for solo instrument and orchestra (usually 3 movements)
Instrumental Genres-Concerto •A cadenza is when the orchestra stops, usually near the end of a movement, and the soloist plays alone
Instrumental Genres (p. 244Chamber Music • The String Quartet is considered to be the most important form of chamber music from the Classical Era, and is typically in four movements
Instrumental Genres Chamber Music • The instrumentation is two violins, one viola, and one cello
Vocal Genres-Voices • Men (tenor, baritone, bass
Vocal Genres -Voices • Women (soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto
Vocal Genres-Voices • SATB choir Soprano, Alto.Tenor,Bass
Vocal Genres--Vocal • The focus of vocal music was on opera, rather than solo pieces, such as the shorter secular songs found in the Renaissance
Vocal Genres --Choral • Large choral works, such as the oratorios of the Baroque era, masses, and other sacred works, continued to be produced
Vocal Genres --Choral • The Requiem (Mass for the Dead) gained popularity in the Classical Era through Mozart’s own Requiem
Vocal Genres Opera • The Classical opera developed the relationship between the singers and orchestra, and became a continuous drama arranged in scenes
Vocal Genres Opera • Opera was extremely popular, and Mozart was the composer who enjoyed the most success in this genre
Vocal Genres Recitative/Aria • The idea of recitative and aria, which was introduced during the Baroque Era, was still present in Classical opera
Form (p. 246)Sonata Form • Typically the form of the first, and sometimes last, movement of the Classical sonata, symphony, and string quartet
Form (p. 246)Sonata Form Exposition-Development-Recapitulation Coda Example: Mozart’s Symphony. No. 39 (Listening No. 61)
Theme and Variations • An instrumental form in which a stated theme is followed by a series of variations on that theme
Theme and Variations • Variations are achieved by changes in tempo, dynamics, and tonality
Theme and Variations Example: Haydn’s String Quartet in C Major, Op. 76 (Listening No. 62)
Rondo • A musical form consisting of two or more contrasting theme areas, each followed by a return to the opening theme
Rondo • The rondo is often used as the spirited final movement of Classical sonatas, symphonies, and string quartets
Rondo Example: Beethoven’s Piano Sonata No. 8 in C Minor, Op. 13 (Listening No. 63
Created by: droe