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Chapter 14

Human Growth and Development

QuestionAnswer
the term "ageism" refers to: A) the veneration of the elderly B) judging people on the basis of chronological age C) the view of society held by older people D) the demographics of the population pyramid B) judging people on the basis of chronological age
ageism in elderly: A) empowers them to use their strengths and wisdom in their communities B) undermines their feelings of competence and self-esteem C)invokes rebellion D) creates special opportunities for older adults that would not otherwise exist B) undermines their feelings of competence and self-esteem
at age 75 as compared to others one believes: A) everyone is faring similarly B) they are doing better than you, you have more probs C) you are doing well and they have more probs/ are self-absorbed D) everyone gets what they deserve and you deserve more C) you are doing well and they have more probs/ are self-absorbed
caregivers can diminish the independence of the elderly if they: A) help too little B) help too much C) encourage physical activity D) do not believe in ageism B) help too much
using elderspeak when engaging with an older adult: A) is demeaning B) helps the individual comprehend the meaning of the conversation C) only makes sense if the individual has a hearing aid D) demonstrates respect and understanding A) is demeaning
which of the following vocal characteristics is a feature of elderspeak? A) higher pitch B) faster speech C) bigger words D) gestures A) higher pitch
the study of population numbers is called: A) gerontology B) psychology C) demography D) geography C) demography
what percent of the US population is over 65? A) 2 B) 13 C) 29 D) 42 B) 13
the problem with the dependency ratio is it: A) assumes people over 65 are dependent B)demonstrates people over 80 are the fastest growing segment of the population C) will not be 1:1 worldwide until 2065 D) does not account for children under age 15 A) assumes people over 65 are dependent
what is the fastest growing age group in the US? A) 0-15 B) 20-35 C) 35-65 D) 80 and up D) 80 and up
in the US only 4% of older people live: A) at home B) in a nursing home C) with an adult child D) independently B) in a nursing home
which of the following is not true of most elders? A) most elders rely on others for basic care B) most elders are care givers rather than receivers C) minority of elders live with adult children D) 10% individuals age 80+ live in a nursing home/ hospital A) most elders rely on others for basic care
in developed nations the most common living arrangement for people over 65 is: A)nursing home B) adult children C) with a spouse or alone D) with an unrelated age-mate C) with a spouse or alone
The main reason we may not notice the young-old is that: A) they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly B) there are relatively few of them C) they are a problem-prone minority. D) they are not integrated into the community. A. they do not fit our stereotypes of the elderly
Which of the following groups makes up the largest group of older adults? A. young-old B. old-old C. oldest-old D. centenarians A. young-old
What distinguishes the old-old from the young-old? A. years of age B. details of living arrangements C. degree of positive or negative attitude D. reductions in physical or mental ability D. reductions in physical or mental ability
Individuals classified as oldest-old are usually how old? A. 65–75 B. 70–85 C. over 85 D. around 100 C. over 85
The wear-and-tear theory of aging is weakened by the fact that: A. the human body cannot repair itself. B. many parts of the body wear out from use. C. many body functions benefit from use. D. machines cannot grow old. C. many body functions benefit from use.
The notion that DNA regulates the aging process is referred to as the: A. cellular accident. B. error catastrophe. C. genetic clock. D. free-radical hypothesis. C. genetic clock
concept of aging as result of cellular duplication errors is based on the fact that the body's ability to make exact copies of the original cells: A. stops at 18 B. stops at 80 C. is altered by mutations as time goes on D. is unchanged through life C. is altered by mutations as time goes on.
Which about cell aging is true? A. Cells replicate indefinitely-errors occur B. Aging may be ability loss of cells to duplicate perfect C. Damage caused by free radicals slow down cell duplication D. adult cells can duplicate more than embryo cells B. Aging may be ability loss of cells to duplicate perfect
The Hayflick limit is a natural limit to the: A. number of times cells can divide. B. size of the population on earth. C. number of children born to one set of parents. D. life span of a victim of genetic disease. A. number of times cells can divide.
The very ends of chromosomes in cells, which may be correlated with longevity, are known as: A. B cells. B. T cells. C. alleles. D. telomeres. D. telomeres
Hank is 75 he uses selective optimization with compensation while driving. He: A. drives at night with fewer cars B. relies on mirrors so he won't hurt his neck turning his head C. drives slowly D. drives fast to get home to soon to avoid accidents C. drives more slowly
Which is not true about sexuality in late adulthood? A. sex is less frequent B. women report less sexual desire than men C.women stop intercourse earlier than men for biological reasons D.selectivity decreases with smaller number of available mates C.women stop intercourse earlier than men for biological reasons
For older drivers, which of the variables below is the strongest predictor of a car accident? A. age B. understanding of driving rules C. poor peripheral vision D. face-front reading ability C. poor peripheral vision
Elderly have fewer car accidents because: A.reaction time slows preventing quick response B.laws require retesting drivers 65+ C.younger drivers have poor peripheral/ night vision D.they compensate for deficiencies by driving slow/avoid night driving D. elderly drivers compensate for deficiencies by driving more slowly and avoiding night driving.
Which of the following strategies is crucial when older people have sensory loss? A. acceptance B. isolation C. compensation D. retirement C. compensation
Which of the following happens to the brain during senescence? A. neural fluid increases B. myelination thickens C. neurotransmitter production decreases D. the corpus callosum increases C. neurotransmitter production decreases
Overall brain slowdown is evident in which of the following ways? A. faster reaction time B. slower reaction time C. faster thinking D. faster talking B. slower reaction time
With age, which of the following occurs in the brain? A. All growth ceases. B. Activity level always decreases. C. Using both hemispheres simultaneously becomes more likely. D. Plaque and tangles form. C. Using both hemispheres simultaneously becomes more likely.
Which is a possible explanation for greater brain activity in older adults? A.they compensate loss by using more parts of the brain B.they have increase brain reserves C.they use only one brain hemisphere D.processing speed of older adults increases A. Older adults compensate for losses by using more parts of their brains.
Delores, age 75, believes her memory is fading with age, and the anxiety this causes her actually diminishes her memory. This is an example of: A. sensory threshold. B. source amnesia. C. stereotype threat. D. information processing. C. stereotype threat.
Otto, age 81, just relayed a news story to his friends over coffee, but cannot remember where he heard or read about the tale. Otto has: A. sensory threshold. B. source amnesia. C. stereotype threat. D. information processing. B. source amnesia.
small sensory losses like decreased ability to hear nuances of emotion in speech: A. impair cognition B. are noticed immediately by the person experiencing them C. are unusual and a sign of a serious problem D. are filled in by the brain A. impair cognition.
Edna 71 has good pronunciation but poor spelling She forgets the word/ phrase she tries to use- "it's on the tip of her tongue" This may be result of: A.decreased inhibition B.poor muscular coordination C.inadequate control processes D.impaired vision C. inadequate control processes
A decrease in brain processing and memory in some older adults may be attributed to: A. use of both brain hemispheres B. inadequate control processes C. increase production of neurotransmitters D. more neural fluid that slows cerebral blood flow B. inadequate control processes
According to the information-processing approach to cognition, which of the following is another term for the “sensing” stage of cognition? A. input B. erasing C. reminding D. priming A. input
The primary reason older people receive less brain input is: A. they're less interested in new things B. their senses decline reducing sensory input C. their threshold increases reducing sensory input D. they can't store information effectively B. their senses decline reducing sensory input
The divide between what is sensed and what is not is known as the: A. input level. B. sensory threshold. C. source amnesia. D. working memory. B. sensory threshold.
The ability to recall a string of digits backward tends to _____ with age, while memory for vocabulary tends to _____ with age. A. increase; increase B. stay the same; decrease C. decrease; decrease D. decrease; stay the same D. decrease; stay the same
Loss of working memory is particularly likely to affect the ability to: A. retain the image of a picture just seen. B. remember public events of the past. C. recognize friends on the street. D. repeat a series of numbers just heard. D. repeat a series of numbers just heard.
One function of working memory is: A. temporary storage of information for conscious use. B. long-term storage of unconscious information. C. storage of visual and auditory afterimages. D. prevention of memory loss A. temporary storage of information for conscious use.
The idea that cognition should be measured in terms of everyday tasks and circumstances is: A. priming. B. recall. C. recognition. D. ecological validity. D. ecological validity.
Control processes depend on which part of the brain? A. amygdala B. cerebellum C. prefrontal cortex D. hypothalamus C. prefrontal cortex
Storage mechanisms, retrieval strategies, selective attention, and problem-solving are all considered: A. implicit memories. B. explicit memories. C. control processes. D. unconscious processes. C. control processes.
Control processes depend on the _____, which shrinks with age. A. amygdala B. cerebellum C. prefrontal cortex D. hypothalamus C. prefrontal cortex
Older adults have _____ vocabularies but _____ fluency. A. extensive; limited B. extensive; extensive C. limited; limited D. limited; extensive A. extensive; limited
Which of the following statements is characteristic of the memory of older adults? A) spelling is better than speech B) better at recall than recognition C) less likely to have tip-of-the-tongue forgetfulness D) benefit from learning memory strategies D)they benefit from learning memory strategies
According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study, the five primary mental abilities _____ around age 60. A. start to decline in only one least-used area B. decline C. show no change D. begin to increase B. decline
For average individuals in late adulthood traditional intelligence tests demonstrate: A.cognitive abilities remain stable B.cognitive abilities continue to increase C.cognitive abilities decline D.some cognitive abilities increase and others decline C. cognitive abilities decline.
According to the Seattle Longitudinal Study, the cognitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following primary mental abilities? A. fluid intelligence B. verbal meaning C. processing speed D. inductive reasoning C. processing speed
Nelma 70 wants to play videogames with her grandson which is likely TRUE? A.passed the age of learning to play B.should do crosswords instead to prevent dementia C.could learn if she starts easy and practices D.could learn short term but forget C. Nelma could learn to play games if she starts at the easiest level and practices regularly.
All are true about learning late EXCEPT: A.learnings possible but gaining skills isn't B.<80 can learn anything if trainings targeted to ability/motivation C.regular practice is key to learning D.developmentalists don't discourage elders from learning A. learning new knowledge is possible but gaining new skills isn't
Primary aging refers to age-related changes that: A. inevitably take place as time goes by. B. occur prior to middle adulthood. C. take place as a consequence of a person's unhealthy behaviors. D. are entirely genetic in origin A. inevitably take place as time goes by.
The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called _____ aging. A. normal B. primary C. secondary D. geriatric B. primary
The changes of primary aging are: A. caused by disease. B. reversible. C. preventable. D. universal. D. universal.
The consequences of particular diseases are features of: A. primary aging. B. senescence. C. secondary aging. D. gerontology. C. secondary aging.
Paulo, age 62, has developed heart disease from a lifetime of smoking cigarettes. His heart disease is an example of: A. secondary aging. B. primary aging. C. normal senescence. D. compressed morbidity A. secondary aging.
The leading cause of death for the oldest-old is: A. cardiovascular disease. B. cancer. C. Alzheimer's disease. D. pneumonia. D. pneumonia.
Primary and secondary aging combine to make major body systems: A. slower. B. more flexible. C. more efficient. D. function better under stress. A. slower.
The medication that reduces hypertension in middle-aged adults can ___ for the oldest-old: A. be counterproductive B. be more effective C. cause hallucinations D. cost too much A. be counterproductive
Limiting the time a person spends being ill or infirm is referred to as: A. compression of morbidity. B. progeria. C. dependency ratio. D. senescence. A. compression of morbidity.
Between 1997 and 2009, the proportion of U.S. elderly with a limitation in activity that interfered with essential functioning: A. decreased. B. increased. C. stayed the same. D. was not measured. Measurement began in 2010 A. decreased.
Lionel has two biomarkers outside normal range, had a life filled with stress, not always handled it, well never smoked. As he ages, we can expect: A.A biological burden B.can handle the hardships of old age C.only secondary aging D.only primary aging A. Lionel's lifelong responses to stress will create a biological burden.
What happens to bones with age? A. They become more porous. B. They gain strength. C. They gain calcium. D. They become more elastic. A. They become more porous.
The condition known as “fragile bones” is called: A. muscular dystrophy. B. cerebral palsy. C. dementia. D. osteoporosis D. osteoporosis
Osteoporosis not only results from primary and secondary aging, but also from too: A. much calcium. B. much exercise. C. much smoking. D. few pregnancies. C. much smoking.
Which of the following does NOT compress morbidity from osteoporosis? A. too much alcohol and tobacco B. not enough weight-bearing exercise C. faster recuperation after a fracture D. restricting movement to avoid falls D. restricting movement to avoid falls
Dementia is: A. benign forgetfulness. B. a problem that affects most of the elderly. C. a problem that affects only the elderly. D. the pathological loss of brain functioning. D. the pathological loss of brain functioning.
A temporary loss of memory and confusion that disappears in hours or days is: A. delirium. B. dementia. C. Alzheimer disease. D. Pick disease. A. delirium.
The estimated number of U.S. residents with living with dementia at around _____ million. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 D. 4
Approximately what percentage of people between the ages of 60 and 69 have dementia? A. 1 B. 5 C. 10 D. 14 A. 1
Developing nations report lower dementia rates. Which is NOT a likely explanation for this? A.poor health care - not diagnosed B.early stages are not identified and counted C.higher level physical exercise preserve mental function D.shorter lifespan C. higher levels of physical exercise preserve mental functioning
Autopsies show that the brains of Alzheimer victims: A. have a proliferation of plaques and tangles. B. exhibit damage from strokes. C. have shrunk to half of normal size. D. appear to be normal. A. have a proliferation of plaques and tangles.
Len developed Alzheimer disease well before the age of 60; early Alzheimer disease is associated with a condition that Len was born with called: A. Pick disease. B. trisomy-21. C. cerebral palsy. D. Huntington disease. B. trisomy-21.
Death typically comes many years after the first signs of Alzheimer disease? A. 1–2 B. 3-5 C. 6–9 D. 10-15 D. 10-15
Vera was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease while in middle age. Her doctor told her family that compared to the kind in old age, this version: A.is much more benign B.progresses more rapidly C.progresses more slowly D.has many more symptoms B. progresses more rapidly.
Researchers believe that Alzheimer disease is _____ genetic. A. not B. completely C. partly D. rarely C. partly
The first stage of Alzheimer disease is characterized by: A. deficits in concentration. B. absentmindedness about recent events. C. personality changes. D. generalized confusion. B. absentmindedness about recent events.
Bruno has Alzheimer disease. He frequently makes aimless comments and repeats words and phrases for no reason. He is most likely in the _____ stage of the disease. A. first B. second C. third D. final B. second
Ray has Alzheimers His family found him going outside barefoot in winter, walking the neighborhood half-dressed, and lighting the stove then walking away. Ray's behaviors are found in the __ stage of Alzheimers A. first B. second C. third D. fourth C. third
In the _____ stage of Alzheimer disease, patients may not eat or talk. A. first B. second C. preliminary D. final D. final
When Alzheimer disease sets in early and impacts those under age 60, death typically occurs around _____ years after the first signs of the disease appear. A. 1 to 2 B. 3 to 5 C. 6 to 9 D. 10 to 15 B. 3 to 5
Vascular dementia is caused by: A. Alzheimer disease. B. inadequate nutrition. C. insufficient supply of blood to the brain. D. environmental toxins. C. insufficient supply of blood to the brain.
Joan had a ministroke, symptoms disappear shortly, it went unnoticed Whats likely to happen? She will: A.have a full life ministrokes are isolated events B.develop Parkinsons C.need PT to prevent future problems D.have other strokes; 1st was a warning D. She will most likely have other strokes; the first one was a warning.
The most common form of frontal lobe dementia is: A. Alzheimer disease. B. vascular dementia. C. Lewy body dementia. D. Pick disease. D. Pick disease.
Which of the following behaviors is a characteristic of frontal lobe dementias? A. more careful planning B. deterioration of social behavior C. pronounced emotional involvement D. memory loss B. deterioration of social behavior
The main symptom of frontal lobe dementias is: A. personality change. B. memory loss. C. seizures. D. tremors. A. personality change.
Parkinson disease produces dementia as well as: A. flabbiness in the muscles. B. rigidity in the muscles. C. many little strokes. D. high blood pressure. B. rigidity in the muscles.
Some dementias, including _____, begin with impaired motor control. A. Alzheimer disease B. vascular dementia C. Parkinson disease D. Pick disease C. Parkinson disease
Verna has dementia motor control/ memory have been impacted though impairment is not the most significant symptom Its loss of inhibition in her chronic gambling She most likely has: A.Lewy body dementia B.vascular dementia C.Parkinsons D.Pick disease A. Lewy body dementia
A main symptom in Lewy body dementia is loss of: A. inhibition. B. memory. C. speech. D. small motor control. A. inhibition.
One of the diseases that can produce dementia is: A. tuberculosis. B. AIDS. C. sickle-cell anemia. D. pneumonia. B. AIDS.
_____ can disrupt the flow of oxygen to the brain, thereby worsening the symptoms of dementia. A. Diabetes B. Pregnancy C. Exercise D. Lipids A. Diabetes
A test that can help identify cognitive problems is: A. a control process. B. the MMSE. C. a life review. D. a ministroke. B. the MMSE.
_____ is a common condition because many elderly people take many different prescription drugs. A. Polypharmacy B. Undernourishment C. Reversible dementia D. Pick's disease D. Pick's disease
Jack started taking meds for his <3 that caused digestive probs a Dr prescribed a drug that caused headaches another Dr prescribed a drug for headaches he experienced: A.ministroke B.reversible dementia C.prescribing cascade D.clinical practice guidelines C. a prescribing cascade.
The fact that many elderly take many different meds means: A.they're less likely to have adverse reactions B.their dosages should be increased C.the drugs can interact/produce adverse reactions D.they're especially aware of possible drug overdose C. the drugs can interact and produce adverse reactions.
Abraham Maslow says that older adults are: A.more likely than younger to reach self-actualization B.less likely than younger to reach self-actualization C.just as likely as younger to reach self-actualization D.too emotionally impaired to reach self-a A. more likely than younger people to reach self-actualization
Erikson called elders _____, as they are both aware of changes between generations and have a broad view of the human experience. A. the elderly B. self-actualized C. social witnesses D. cognitively superior C. social witnesses
Which of the following does NOT characterize self-actualization? A. spiritual understanding B. the longing for secure and stable home C. an appreciation for or engagement in artistic pursuits D. philosophical reflection B. the longing for secure and stable home
many older people begin to demonstrate interest in painting, music, or woodworking supports the idea they: A.are generally bored B.develop an appreciation for aesthetic C.have a drive for power and prestige D.are less interested in being with people B. develop an appreciation for the aesthetic
study of very creative people found that in 70s 80s 90s they: A.lose their creativity B.are competitive and focused on their status in chosen field C.remain focused, efficient, and committed as they had been D.thought age impaired quality of work C. remained as focused, efficient, and committed as they had been earlier
Audrey is 85 years old and has begun a life review. Her primary reason for doing this is probably to: A. entertain younger generations. B. embellish her past experiences. C. put her life into perspective. D. escape her present circumstances. C. put her life into perspective.
Dorothy started a journal that includes stories of childhood/ early adulthood. She plans to pass her journal down as family history and so they know her in an intimate way. Her journal writing is: A.aesthetics B.catharsis C.life review D.confession C. life review.
Which of the following attributes is associated with wisdom? A. age B. practical life experience C. SES D. number of advanced degrees B. practical life experience
challenge of researchers to see if wisdom increases with age is: A.the elders they want to study die B.there arent ways to study change over time C.definition of wisdom varies D.its difficult to find people for a study that requires self-reflection C. the definition of wisdom varies by culture.
People who live to see their 100th birthday are referred to as: A. centenarians. B. young-old. C. decadecadians. D. the oldest-old. A. centenarians.
Research on places where many people live well to advanced age indicates that these individuals usually: A.work through life B.live in communities that provide superior medical care C.eat a high-protein diet D.spend a lot of time sitting down A. work throughout life
A cultural factor that may increase longevity is: A. polygamy. B. being integrated into the community. C. believing in life after death. D. being segregated from the noise and activity of children. B. being integrated into the community.
According to a study, factors that contribute to a long life include: A. early retirement and moderate exercise. B. vacation time and limited social interaction. C. prestigious work and a large home. D.lifelong work and diet rich in fresh vegetables D. lifelong work and a diet rich in fresh vegetables.
Maximum life span is defined as the: A. number of years a newborn is likely to live. B. risk of mortality. C. average age at death. D. upper limit to which members of a species can live. D. upper limit to which members of a species can live.
The maximum life span is _____ years for humans. A. 13 B. 55 C. 122 D. 180 C. 122
In 2012 in the United States, the average life expectancy for was _____ years for men and _____ years for women. A. 76; 81 B. 81: 75 C. 65; 84 D. 84; 65 A. 76; 81
In a Swedish study, centenarians were found to be less likely to _____ than octogenarians. A. take pain medications B. take antidepressant medication C. experience positive mood D. have any physical ailments B. take antidepressant medication
Created by: knagle90