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7.1 EXAM

INTEGUMENTARY, SKELETAL, MUSCULAR SYSTEMS

TermDefinition
Integumentary system composed of skin, hair, skin glands, and nails.
function -thermoreregulation -protection -cutaneous sensation -excretion/absorption -blood reservoir -synthesis of Vitamin D
1)skin/cutaneous membrane 2)types -largest organ -thin skin (thinner stratum corneum) -thick skin (thick stratum corneum) highly keratinized
2 principle parts epidermis- superficial, thinner portion (epithelial tissue) dermis- deeper, thicker (connective tissue
epidermis no bleeding,
dermis bleeding,
4 tissue types epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue
thermoregulation effectors -Integument(skin) -releasing sweat -Circulatory -redirect blood flow to/ from skin -Muscular -shivering
Osteomalacia lack of Vitamin D
Layers of skin Epidermis- epithelial Dermis- papillary region (dense irr. conn. tissue Subcutaneous(hypodermis)- addipose conn. tissue larger blood vessels, not part of skin
Skin cell types Keratinocytes- protection, waterproof, 90% Merkel cells(tactic cell)- communication sensory Melanocytes-Melanin pigments, pro\tect against UV damage Langerhans cells- immune defense, eats dead cells
keratin family of fibrous structural proteins. outer layer of human skin as well as hair and nails.
Layers of cells Can- stratum corneum Lucy- stratum lucidum Grow- stratum granulosum Some- stratum spinosum Beans- stratum basale
stratum corneum -outermost layer, keratinized squamous -waterproof abrasion-resistant covering
stratum lucidum -layers of clear cells -thick skin only -dead keratnocytes near the surface
stratum granulosum -3-5 layers thick -contains granules that REPEL WATER
stratum spinosum -layers of irr. shaped cells -langerhans cells abundant, melanin granules
stratum basale/germanitivum -deepest layer -single layer of columnar cells on the basal lamina -proliferate and provide cells for the other layers -dark melanin granules can be seen
Regions in the Dermis Papillary region- top fifth of the dermis, more in females, AREOLAR conn. tissue Reticular region- bottom four-fifths of the dermis, dense IRR. CONN. TISSUE and numerous structures.
Dermis contains.. fibroblasts, macrophages, adipose, nerve fibers, temp receptors, blood/lymph vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, apocrine and eccrine sweat glands
Papillary Region loose conn. elastic fibers, aerolar tissue functions- epidermal anchor, fine blood supply receptors for sensation (FINGERPRINTS)
Reticular region dense irr. conn. tissue, collagen and elastic fibers, blood vessels and nerves, receptors for temp (STRETCH MARKS!)
Cutaneous membrane is Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
Skin is epidermis and dermis
albinism- absence of melanin, autosomal recessive
hair -prevents heat loss -protection
Big to small: CCM Cuticle, Cortex, Medulla
skin colors melanin- yellow,red, brown, black pigment carotene- yellow to orange pigment hemoglobin- reddish pigment melanocytes- found in the stratum basale
Skin derivatives hair glands -sebaceous/ oil -sudoriferous/ sweat nails
hair prevents heat loss protection
Glands of the skin -sebaceous (oil) glands -sudiferous (sweat glands) eccrine- *most of body apocrine- *armpit/axillary, perineal regions -ceruminous (wax) glands *only in ear canal -mammary (milk) glands *only in breasts
sebaceous glands- oil/sebum water retention bacterial inhibition
sudoriferous glands- eccrine&appocrine eccrine- sweat, temp regulation appocrine- axillary sweat, puberty, no thermoregulation role!
Nail -Nail body -Nail root -Nail matrix- mitosis occurs
burns 1st degree- involves epidermis 2nd degree- damages epidermis + papillary dermis 3rd degree- full thickness burn, replaced entirely by scar tissue 4th burns- loss of functional tissues such as tendons, ligaments, muscle
epidermal wound healing no scar
deep wound healing- 4 phases -Inflammatory phase -Migratory phase -Proliferative phase -Maturation phase
wound repair parenchyma- functioning epithelium stroma- underlying connective tissue granulation- formation of blood vessels and connective base leading to deep wound healing fibrosis- scar formation keloid- raised, hypertrophied scar
scar formation hypertrophic scar- remains within boundaries of original wound keloid scar- extends into normal tissue
Skeletal system provides framework for the body and protects body organs
bone connective tissue
Functions of the bone 1)support 2)protection 4)movement 4)mineral homeostasis 5)blood cell production 6)triglyceride storage
Structure of bone Diaphysis- shaft (medullary cavity, yellow marrow) Epiphyses- Distal & proximal ends Metaphyses- where the diaphyses joins the epiphyses Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage on joint
Epiphyses (top and bottom of bone) -articular cartilage -red bone marrow -spongy bone
Metaphyses (mature bone b/w epiphyses and diaphysis) -Epiphyseal plate- hyaline cartilage that allows to grow in length -Epiphyseal line- completed growth
3 types of cartilage 1)hyaline- white, contains some collagen fibers 2)fibrocartilage- stronger, thicker collagen 3)elastic- most flexible
Structure of bone Periosteum- dense irr. conn. tissue (no articular cartilage) around the bone Medullary cavity- bone marrow Endosteum- Membrane lining the medullary cavity
Bone cells Osteogenic- turns to osteoblast then osteocyte Osteoblasts- forms matrix Osteocytes- maintains tissue Osteoclasts- reabsorption
Compact bone tissue Osteon
Spongy bone -no osteons -spaces filled w/ red marrow -located at flat bones, long bones ends
Osteogenesis- bone formation Intramembranous ossification- directly within the mesenchyme Endochondral ossification- within hyaline cartilage
Factors affecting bone growth -Nutrition -Sufficient levels of specific hormones -Calcium homeostasis *Parathyroid hormone *calcitonin
Remodeling -Continual redistribution of bone matrix along lines of mechanical stress
Common Fractures -Compound/open -Comminuted (3+ pieces fragments) -Greenstick (twig braking, incomplete breakage) -Impacted
Repair of a fracture 1)Formation of fracture hematoma 2)Formation of fibrocartilagenous callus 3)Formation of bony callus 4)Bone remodeling
Created by: glosantelices