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Yr 10 Genetics

basic genetics for Yr 10 students nz

Allele Alternative form of the same gene.
Asexual Reproduction Reproduction in which genes are passed down from only one parent.
Base The four bases: Adenine(A), Cytosine(C), Guanine(G) and Thymine(T). They make up the 'rungs' of the DNA 'ladder'. Are always in the same pairings - A+T, C+G
Carrier A person whose cells have both a normal and faulty allele. Symptomless carriers show no sign of the genetic disorder they are carrying.
Cell The basic 'unit of life' consisting of a nucleus and cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane.
Characteristic A feature of an organism. A result of a genes instructions to a cell.
Chromosome Thread-like structures in the nucleus made up of DNA.
Clone A group of genetically identical plants or animals produced asexually from the one parent.
DNA A chemical containing the code which tells a cell how to develop. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.
Dominant An allele which overrides other alleles of a gene so that their affects are hidden.
Environment The surrounding conditions in which an organism develops.
Fertilisation When the nuclei of two sex cells such as egg and sperm join together.
Gamete A sex cell. For example an egg or a sperm. Gametes only carry one copy of an allele.
Gene A section of DNA that contains the instructions of a particular characteristic (or protein) such as eye colour.
Generation A term used to describe the descendents of a pair of individuals. For example the first generation is their children and the second generation is their grandchildren.
Genetics The science concerning the inheritance of characteristics.
Genotype The combination of alleles held by an individual.
Heterozygous A genotype where both alleles are different.
Homozygous A genotype where both alleles are the same.
Inheritance A term used to describe the passing of genes from parents to offspring.
Nucleus Part of a cell which contains genetic information in the form of chromosomes.
Phenotype The physical characteristics produced by a particular genotype.
Punnet Square A diagram showing how alleles can combine during fertilisation.
Recessive An allele whose effects are hidden by the presence of a dominant allele. A recessive allele must be inherited from both parents in order to show it's effects in the offspring.
Selective Breeding Breeding plants or animals from individuals that have the characteristics you most want.
Sexual Reproduction Reproduction in which half the genes are inherited from each of the two parents.
Variation This describes the differences shown in a group of organisms.
Zygote An ovum (egg cell) that has been fertilised by a sperm cell.
Created by: DR1