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GEO Final

Geology 1090 Final

geocentric model of earth all celestial bodies revolve around earth
heliocentric model of earth sun is center; earth rotates on axis around sun
doppler effect approaching object has higher pitch than when it is moving away; sound waves "chasing it"; light moving toward viewer is compressed (blue), moving away is expanded (red); universe is all red
formation of light elements by fusion hydrogen formed, then bonded to create light elements
formation of heavy elements in supernovae mass compacted & rotated; heated up; h2 fused to helium; becomes giant; heavy elements created
magnetic field distorted by solar winds
inclination curving magnetic field lines cause compass to tilt toward or away from Earth's surface
declination difference between magnetic north and true north
atmosphere composition 78% oxygen; 20% oxygen; 1% other gases
pressure changes in atmosphere molecules denser at base; pressure decrease upward
crust: (c/p, composition, thickness) chemical layer; oceanic: 70% silicon, ~35 km; continental: 50& oxygen, ~7 km;
mantle: (c/p, composition, thickness) chemical layer; high iron and magnesium; ~2900 km
core: (c/p, composition, thickness) chemical layer; high iron and nickel; ~6371 km
lithosphere: (c/p, state, thickness) physical layer; solid; ~100 km
asthenosphere: (c/p, state, thickness) physical layer; plastic; ~350 km
mesosphere: (c/p, state, thickness) physical layer; solid; ~2900 km
outer core: (c/p, state) physical layer; liquid
inner core: (c/p, state, thickness) physical layer; solid; ~5150 km
order of chemical layers crust -> mantle -> core
order of physical layers lithosphere -> asthenosphere -> mesosphere -> outer core -> inner core
Wegener: fit of continents continents all fit together
Wegener: glacial evidence distribution of Permian glacial deposits and striations fit together in region that used to occupy polar South cap
Wegener: fossil evidence fossil evidence occurs all across southern continents
Wegener: mountain belt evidence distinctive belts of rock match up when Atlantic removed
Wegener: paleoclimate evidence rocks preserve evidence of climate belts; belts align in sensible manner when Pangaea is together
mineral naturally occurring, mostly inorganic crystalline solids formed by geologic processes and with a definite chemical composition
silica tetrahedral building block of silicate minerals
bowen's reaction series OPAB CR--SR (OMQ)
aphanitic small crystals, cool fast
phaneritic big crystals, cool slow
pyroclastic bits and pieces
glass cool so fast no crystals form
vesicular gases migrate and leave bubble trains
felsic high silica, lighter
mafic magnesium/iron, darker
decompressional melting a hot rock at high pressure moved to a shallower crustal level the decrease in pressure may cause rock to melt
clastic class loose rock fragments cemented together
biochemical class cemented shells and organisms
chemical class minerals the crystallize directly from water
organic carbon-rich remains of organisms
grain size as transport distance increases, size decreases
sorting of sedimentary better sorted, transport longer
grain shape more spherical, transport longer
asymmetric ripples flow in one direction
symmetrical ripples back and forth swash; occur near shores
mudcracks indicate alternate wet and dry conditions
burial metamorphism deep burial in a basin
dynamic metamorphism shearing in a fault zone
regional metamorphism P and T change due to structural deformation
hydrothermal metamorphism alteration by hot water
subduction metamorphism P and T alteration
shock extreme P from an impact
elastic rebound stress build up and cause rock adjacent to fault to ben elastically until slip occurs
moment magnitude scale most accurate; measures: amount of slip, length of fault that slips, strength of rock that slips
richter scale measures amplitude of largest wave 100 km from epicenter
mercalli intensity scale assess damage and perceptions
peaceful volcanoes (chemistry, viscosity, gas content) basaltic -50% SiO2; low viscosity; low gas
middle explosive volcanoes (chemistry, viscosity, gas content) andesitic -60% SiO2; intermediate viscosity & gas
very explosive volcanoes (chemistry, viscosity, gas content) rhyolitic -70% SiO2; high viscosity; high gas
oblique-slip faults diagonal sliding
dip-slip faults movement parallel to dip line; rifting
strike-slip faults slip parallel to strike line, no up or down, vertical dip; transform boundaries
ductile deformation change shape w/o breaking; warm, high pressure, slow change
brittle deformation cracking and breaking; cold, sudden
Created by: haleybaker