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Mitosis and Meiosis

Important parts of Mitosis and Meiosis (gr9)

What are the 3 stages of cell division? 1) interphase 2) mitosis 3) cytokinesis
Why do we have the cell cycle? To replace broken or worn out cells
What cells undergo mitosis? All but sex cells
What is the longest stage of the cell cycle? Interphase
What happens in interphase? The cell prepares it's self. It duplicates DNA and gets bigger. Some organelles duplicate.
What are the 4 parts of Mitosis? 1) prophase 2) metaphase 3) anaphase 4) telophase
What happens in Prophase? The spindle fibers come out of the centrioles and they grab onto the centromeres of the chromosomes
What happens in Metaphase? The spindle fibers bring the chromosomes into the equator or the cell
What happens in Anaphase? The spindle fibers pull apart the chromosomes and separate the sister chromatids and pull them to opposite sides of the cells
What happens in Telophase? There are a full set of chromosomes on each side of the cell. The fibers disappear and the nucleolus appear. The membrane begins to form around the chromosomes
What happens in cytokinesis? The division of the cytoplasm to create daughter cells (which are completely identical)
Cells will not divide if... Dna is damaged. Dna wasn't replicated. There aren't enough nutrients to support the growth of the cells. (they will then be repaired or destroyed)
Cancer is .... mutated cells that divide uncontrollably and don't respond to the other cells around them
Cancer can turn into.... A tumor
Do cancer cells respond to messages from neighbouring cells? No
What is genetic diversity? A result of sexual reproduction and if gives organisms advantages or disadvantages and makes us all different.
What is a haploid number? Each set of chromosomes (1 mother, 1 father) is a haploid number. The amount of half the genetic material
What is a diploid number? How many chromosomes an organism has? E.G. Humans: 2 * 23 sets (2 chromosomes per set) = 46
What is a gamete? The reproductive cells that have part of each of your parents' DNA in it.
What is a female gamete vs. a male gamete? Female = egg male = sperm
What happens when a sperm cell enters an egg? The information from each cells combine. A diploid cell is formed which turns into a zygote which turns into an embryo after cell division. (process of fertilization). The egg will also stop any other sperm from entering
What are homologous chromosomes? A pair of matching chromosomes (IE chromosomes #12). One is from each parent they are the same shape and size.
In what organisms does meiosis occur? In female and male multicellular organisms
Where in the body does meiosis occur? In the sex organs Males = testies Females = ovaries
What are germ cells? Cells inside the reproductive organs that divide by meiosis to produce gametes.
How many rounds of cell division to cells undergoing meiosis go through? 2
What are the names of the 2 rounds of meiosis cell division? meiosis 1 and meiosis 2
What are the names of the parts in meiosis 1? phrophase 1 metaphase 1 anaphase 1 and telophase 1
What are the names of the parts in meiosis 2? prophase 2 metaphase 2 anaphase 2 and telophase 2
What basically happens in meiosis 1? The homologous chromosomes are separated into different cells
What basically happens in meiosis 2? The sister chromatids are separated into different cells
Where does crossing over happen? In meiosis 1
What is crossing over? When the non-sister chromatids 'hug' and exchange DNA so that all of them are different.
What does crossing over create? Genetic diversity
What are the things in meiosis that create genetic diversity? crossing over and independent assortment and mutations
where does independent assortment occur? In meiosis 1
What is independent assortment? It is when the homologous chromosomes or the sister chromatids get separated and pulled to different ends of the cell. There are many different possible combinations which will in turn make each cell unique.
Is the process of meiosis the same for males and females? Yes (but the outcome is different)
What is different about the outcome of meiosis for males vs females? AFTER MEIOSIS 2: Males will end up with 4 sperm. Females will end up with only 1 egg because the other cells don't have the organelles to survive (the other three die)
Will meiosis 2 occur if there aren't enough nutrients to do it? No
When does meiosis occur for males and females? Males: from puberty and onward the body is always creating more sperm Females: from a certain time as a fetus until about birth (when in the womb and are forming). No other eggs are created after that.
Mutations in meiosis can occur when... homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate
What are some disadvantages to chromosome mutations (made by meiosis)? Offspring will fail to develop or death of an offspring
What are some things that can happen to a mutated chromosome? Part of a chromosome can be: Inverted, duplicated, lost, or moved
What is a karyotype? It is a poster/graph that shows the chromosomes inside you
What can a karyotype be used for? A karyotype can help diagnose genetic disorders or syndromes
What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes represent? The sex
What is the X, Y pairing for males and females? Males: XY Females: XX
What is a clone? An identical genetic copy of it's parent.
What is asexual reproduction? only 1 parent is needed to create offspring
What are the offspring like of parents that produced them through asexual reproduction? They are identical copies to each other and their parents (clones)
What are the 5 categories of asexual reproduction? Binary fission, budding, fragmentation, vegetive reproduction and spore formation.
What is binary fission? It is similar to mitosis (in prokaryotic cells - typically). It replicates its DNA then splits into two.
When can mutations occur during binary fission? When chromosomes fail to move into the two different cells or during DNA replication
What is a bad thing (for humans) if there are mutations in bacteria during binary fission? Bacteria can mutate themselves and become resistant to our antibiotics
What is budding? Areas of organisms undergo repeated mitosis to develop an identical organism growing off of the original organism then breaks off to be independent
Does budding occur in uni or multi cellular organisms? Both
What is fragmentation? If a part of a parent comes off the part grows back on the parent and the fragment will become a living replica of its parent.
What is vegetative reproduction? It's the broad umbrella of that some plants undergo asexual reproduction
What are 2 human assisted methods of vegetative reproduction? 1) grafting 2) taking cuttings
What happens in grafting? stems are attached to the roots of a similar plant
What happens when you take cuttings? You remove a section of the plant and dip it into a growing mixture and the signal from the liquid will cause the plant to grow
What is spore formation? The new organism is created through mitosis. When a spore from the organism is moving (through wind for example) and gets to a suitable condition a new clone of the organism will form where it lands
Are there ever instances where human assisted cloning is necessary? Yes
What is the purpose of reproduction/adult DNA cloning? We can create clones of things that have good mutations or desired traits (IE cows that produce large amounts of milk). We can save genetic information from endangered species
What is the process of adult DNA cloning? Remove the nucleus of a cell, put it into an egg cell that has no nucleus, shock the cell and it will start to replicate. The embryo forms and is put into a mother.
What are problems with cloning? only 10% of clones survive, clones can become abnormally large, there are higher rates of infection and cancer in clones
What is therapeutic cloning? it uses embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells to create specialized cells which will in turn help people that need new cells (like skin cells)
How does therapuduic cloning work? stem cells are used and they can correct health problems by becoming specialized cells
What are stem cells? Cells with the potential to become any other cell that they come near
What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells? Embryonic stem cells: they are more adaptable then adult stem cells but they are taken from early stages of creating life Adult stem cells: have little ethical problems associated with using them and they are less adaptable
What are the three stages of sexual reproduction? Mating, fertilization, development
What is mating? Getting gametes together at the same place at the right time
What is fertilization? The sperm and egg join to form an organism
What is development? The development of the embryo
What are the 2 types of fertilization? Internal and External
What is external fertilization? It is when the sperm and egg join outside of a body (and grow outside of the body as well)
Where is external fertilization typically found? In water
What are the advantages of external fertilization? Little engery is needed (by developing the baby or finding a mate). Lots of offspring are made. The offspring are spread far away. There is less competition.
What are the disadvantages to external fertilization? Many gametes die, many eggs don't meet with sperm and don't become fertilized, offspring are not protected.
What is internal fertilization? The egg and sperm join inside the body and the baby forms inside the mother
What are the advantages to internal fertilization? The eggs are protected, the offspring have a higher likely hood of surviving compared to external fertilization
What are the disadvantages to internal fertilization? Lots of energy is needed (by finding a mate, fertilizing and developing the baby), and fewer zygote are produced
How long is the menstrul cycle? 28 days
What are days 1 - 13 called in the menstrul cycle? follicular phase
What happens in the follicular phase? Days 1-5 menstration begins, (blood lining in the uterus ruptures) Days 6-13 the pituitary gland secretes follicle stimulating hormone and the follicle matures
What is day 14 of the menstrul cycle called? ovulation
what happens during ovulation? the follicle bursts and the egg is released
What is day 15-28 called in the menstrul cycle? Luteal phase
what happens during the luteal phase? the Uturus' lining thickens and if the egg isn't fertilized the hormone levels drop
What happens after the 28th day of the menstrul cycle? it repeats
Where does human fertilization occur? in the fallopian tubes
Once the egg is becomes a zygote where does it go? To the uterus
Describe the uterus A muscular pear-shapped organ about the size of a fist
Where does the uterus lead? to the cervix
Where does the cervix lead to? the vagina
When does embryonic development occur? In the early development of organisms. IN HUMANS: in the first two months after fertilization
What is fetal development? It is when the cell layers become the organs and tissues of the baby
What are the three trimesters of fetal development called? first trimester, second trimester and third trimester
When is the first trimester? 0-12 weeks
When is the second trimester? 12-24 weeks
When is the third trimester? 24 weeks +
What happens in the first trimester? MONTH 1:The formation fo the organs occur (organogenisis) MONTH 2: Limbs assume adult shape and major organs are evident (heartbeat) MONTH 3: the development is essentially complete except for lungs and brain. Carries out primitive reflexes like sucking
After how long is a baby defined as a fetus? the 2nd month
Aprox. how big is the fetus after the first trimester? 25 mm long
What happens if you drink alcohol during pregnancy (especially the first trimester)? Fetal alcohol syndrom ---> brain damage
What happens during the second trimester? The fetus grows and bone formation occurs
Are there bones in a fetus during the first trimester? No, but there is cartilage
Aprox how big is the fetus after the second trimester? 1 foot long
What happens during the third trimester? The pace of growth accelerates (weight doubles) Nutrients are provided via the mother's placenta Major tracts are formed
What are some causes of infertility? Low sperm count, radiation, toxins, female hormone imbalance and medical treatments
What is the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies? To help infertile couples have children
What are the four ways to assist in reproduction? Artificial insemination (AI), in vetro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICIS)
How does artificial insemination (AI) work? Sperm is collected from the male then injected into the female.
How does In vitro fertilization (IVF) work? The egg cells go into a petri dish and the sperm cells are added to fertilize the eggs. 2-4 days later the embryos are implanted into the uterus
How does Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) work? An egg and sperm mixture is created and put into the fallopian tubes
How does Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ISCI) work? 1 sperm is injected into an egg. It becomes fertilized then the egg is put into the uterus.
What is an advantage to gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)? It will let the egg fertilize itself inside the woman's fallopian tubes
What is a problem with in vitro fertilization (IVF)? This is the assisted reproductive technology with the most birth defects associated
Which assisted technology provides the highest rate of success? in vitro fertilization (IVF)
What is a diploid cell? A cell with full genetic material
What is a haploid cell? A cell with half the genetic material
Created by: lovesick101



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