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Pharm - Pulmonary

Pulmonary Pharmacology from First Aid 2013

QuestionAnswer
Antihistamines block which receptor? H1
First generation H1 blockers treat what? Name some. Allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid. They are more sedating because they cross into the CNS. Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine.
Second generation H1 blockers treat what? Name some. Allergy only. They're far less sedating. Loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, ceterizine (usually end in "-adine")
What is the classic beta-2 agonist used in acute asthma? Albuterol
What are salmeterol, formoterol? What are their side effects? Long-acting beta-2 agonists used in the prophylactic treatment of asthma. SFX: tremor, arrhythmia
Theophylline: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: inhibits PDE, increasing cAMP Use: bronchodilation in asthma Tox: CYP450, nephro- and cardiotoxicity. Blocks action of adenosine***
Ipratropium: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: blocks muscarinic receptors Use: prevents bronchoconstriction in asthma Also used in COPD.
How are corticosteroids used in asthma? "-asones" inhibit the synthesis of all cytokines and inactivate NF-kB, the TF that induces TNFa. First line therapy for chronic asthma prevention.
How are anti-leukotrienes used in asthma treatment? They block leukotriene receptors or LOX acitivity and so are especially good for aspirin-induced asthma. Montelukast, zafirlukast - block receptors Zileuton - inhibit LOX
Omalizumab: MOA, Use, Tox Anti-IgE antibody, used in asthma resistant to other treatment.
Which asthma therapies target the early response (symptoms), and which target the late response (inflammation)? Early: beta-agonists, theophylline, anti-muscarinics Late: steroids, anti-leukotrienes
What are cromolyn drugs? They block mast cell degranulation. They used to be common in asthma treatment but have since been replaced by anti-leukotrienes.
Guaifenesin: MOA, Use Expectorant that thins mucus secretions but does not suppress the cough reflex.
What is N-acetylcysteine's use in the context of the respiratory system? It is a mucolytic that can loosen mucus plugs in CF patients.
Bosentan: MOA, Use MOA: Competitively antagonizes endothelin-1, decreasing PVR. Use: Treats pulmonary artery HTN.
Dextromethorphan: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: as an anti-tussive, stimulates NMDA glutamate receptors. Tox: as a codeine analog, has mild opioid effects; Rx O/D with naloxone
Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: sympathetic a-agonists, decongestant Use: reduce nasal hyperemia, congestion Tox: HTN, and a stimulant (weight loss)
Methacholine: MOA, Use MOA: muscarinic receptor agonist Use: used in asthma challenge testing
Created by: wmwebb89