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Growth Chapter 13

Human Growth and Development

QuestionAnswer
The theorist who first proposed the idea that individuals continue to develop well into adulthood was: A. Freud B. Erikson C. Skinner D. Vygotsky B. Erikson
Most developmental theorists today believe that: A. Stages of adult development are not orderly and predictable B. Adulthood is divided into a specific sequence of stages C. Intimacy always precedes generativity D. Generativity is rare b4 age 40 A. Stages of Adult Development are not orderly and predictable
According to Erikson, the search for identity beginning in Identity vs Role Diffusion: A. Is ongoing through adulthood B. Ends with Intimacy vs Isolation C. Ends with Generativity vs Stagnation D. Comes to fruition only after Integrity vs Despair A. Is ongoing throughout adulthood
What is one of Erikson's stages of adulthood? a. Trust vs Mistrust b. Initiative vs Guilt c. Generativity vs Stagnation d. Industry vs Inferiority C. Generativity vs Stagnation
Susan's grandmother, age 80, is in Erikson's final stage of adulthood called: A. Identity vs Role Confusion B. Industry vs Inferiority C. Generativity vs Stagnation D. Integrity vs Despair D. Integrity vs Despair
How many stages of development did Abraham Maslow describe? A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10 B. 5
People in Maslow's third level on the hierarchy of needs seek: A. self-actualization B. safety C. generativity D. love and belonging D. Love and Belonging
According to the text, middle age, if it exists: A. is a time of crisis B. occurs around age 40 C. could begin at 35 or 50 or anywhere between D. is a more negative stage for men than women C. Could begin at 35 or 50 or anywhere in between
Research shows the ___________ --a period of unusual anxiety, and transformation during middle adulthood --has more to do with historical circumstances than age. A. cohort bridge B. ecological niche C. midlife crisis D. gender trajectory D. Midlife crisis
Which statement about middle age is true? A. It is a time of severe emotional crisis B. There are very few changes at midlife C. Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40 D. It always begins at age 40 C. Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40
An individual's _______ provides an example of developmental continuity. A. career B. personality C. life experience D. family relationships B. Personality
Which is NOT one of the Big Five personality traits? A. selflessness B. openness C. extraversion D. agreeableness A. selflessness
Samuel is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Samuel is high in: A. openness B. extroversion C. conscientiousness D. neuroticism D. Neuroticism
A person who has many of the personality traits associated with extroversion would be described as: A. depressed and anxious B. active and outgoing C. open and receptive D. creative and intelligent B. active and outgoing
Ronald seems to thrive on changing jobs, is artistic, and likes to try new things. He would be rated high on the personality dimension called: A. extroversion B. openness C. neuroticism D. sociability B. openness
Those who know her describe Matilda as a kind, helpful, and easygoing person, She is high on which of the Big Five traits? A. agreeableness B. neuroticism C. openness D. conscientiousness A. agreeableness
Davetta is very organized and self-disciplined. She conforms easily to standards set for her performance at work. She is high on which of the Big Five traits? A. agreeableness B. openness C. conscientiousness D. extroversion C. Conscientiousness
People choose a particular lifestyle and social context, or ____, because it is compatible with their personality traits. A. ecological niche B. environmental fit C. adult community D. adaptable environment A. ecological niche
Statistically, who is likely to have the MOST stable personality? A. a 5-year-old boy B. a 14-year-old girl C. a 23-year-old man D. a 35-year-old woman D. a 35-year-old woman
The Big Five personality traits: A. are present in highly-varying degrees throughout much of adulthood B. apply only to people living in North America C. first become obvious in preschool children D. were created by grouping hundreds of traits D. were created by grouping hundreds of traits
Chris is high in extroversion and therefore will probably: A. be likely to get a divorce B. have a life that is in constant flux C. become a librarian or a safety inspector D. have a busy social life D. Have a busy social life
A man who changes jobs frequently, moves often, and always seems happier because of such changes is likely to be high in: A. conscientiousness B. openness C. neuroticism D. extroversion B. Openness
Adults choose their ____ by selecting neighborhoods, mates, hobbies, and careers at least in part based on their personality traits. A. ecological niche B. kinkeeper C. Big 5 D. social convoy A. ecological niche
Genes aren't the only influence on personality. Therefore: A. personality tends to remain the same B. genes determine how people will respond to their life experiences C. it is still possible for adult personality to change D. culture isn't important C. It is still possible for adult personality to change if the context shifts
Which personality traits tend to increase with age? A. extroversion B. openness C. agreeableness D. neuroticism C. agreeableness
With increasing age, the trait of extroversion tends to: A. transform into neuroticism B. increase markedly C. decrease slightly D. remain stable D. remain stable
Openness is not seen as a particularly positive personality trait in: A. Italy B. the US C. China D. Australia C. China
The Big Five personality traits were identified more than 30 years ago; now a proposed 6th trait called _______, has been observed. A. dependence on others B. introversion C. trustworthiness D. sense of responsibility A. dependence on others
A study of Finns found those high in extroversion were likely to move from isolated areas to more urban areas, suggesting: A. environment shapes personality B. personality influences choices C. personality determines genes D. environment is inborn B. Personality influences choices
The group of people that moves through life with an individual while providing both protection and encouragement is called a: A. familial collection B. social convoy C. fictive kin D. support network B. social convoy
Randy moved across the country to advance his career. Though he moved along, he soon developed a group of coworkers who became like a family to him. They served as his: A. kinkeeper B. fictive kin C. social convoy D. clique C. social convoy
An acquaintance who is not a friend but still has an impact on an adult's life is called a(n): A. social convoy B. kinkeeper C. consequential stranger D. fictive kin C. consequential stranger
As people age, their friendships tend to: A. dissipate B. fade C. stagnate D. improve D. improve
People who aren't in a persons closest convoy but who still have an effect on the persons life by providing information, support, or new ideas are known as: A. intimate strangers B. intimate friends C. consequential strangers D. consequential friends C. consequential strangers
How do consequential strangers differ from friends? A. Includes people from a wider variety of faiths, ages, etc B. They include only people of the same age C. They do not play a role in a person's daily activities D. They know nothing about a person A. They include people from a wider variety of faiths, ethnic groups, ages, and political opinions
How has the Internet impacted friendship and relationship with consequential stranger (CS) A.Stronger friendships and decrease # CS B.Weaker friendships and decrease # CS C.Weaker friendships and increase # CS D.Stronger friendships and increase # cs A. It has strengthened friendships and increased the number of consequential strangers
How does relationships between siblings typically change from adolescence to adulthood? A. It improves if same gender B. It improves for only brothers not sisters C. Most siblings grow apart as they age D. It improves to where they are best friends D. It improves to the point where they are often best friends
Rob got laid off and had to move back in with his parents. Their relationship will: A. Stay the same B. become less affectionate C. result in tension and physical violence D. become less critical and more nurturing B. Become less affectionate than it was before
Getting married, having children, and living in separate residences increases the likelihood of ____ sibling relationships in adulthood. A. improving B. straining C. ambivalent D. ending A. Improving
An international study found the highest rates of amicability between adults and their aging parents in which country? A. Spain B. US C. England D. Germany C. England
In what country did an international study find highest rates of conflict between adults and aging parents? A. Germany B. Spain C. England D. US D. US
Individuals who are accepted into a family that is not their legal or biological family are called: A. fictive kin B. kinkeepers C. social convoys D. generative allies A. fictive kin
Jeremy's upbringing sucked, he made friends at work with Kent. Kent's family "adopted Jeremy as: A. surrogate sibling B. foster son C. kindred brother D. fictive kin D. fictive kin
What percentage of contemporary US adults will never make a marriage-like commitment? A. 5% B. less than 10% C. about 30% D. about 40% B. less than 10%
Of adults born before 1940, what percentage got married? A. 10% B. 33% C. 50% D. 96% D. 96%
Adults now marry later in life, which is most often the result of: A. a rejection of partnership B. heterosexuality C. advanced education D. the scars left by a previous divorce C. Advanced education
Couples who cohabit due to convenience are: A. as happy as couples who cohabit with the intent to marry B. happier than couples who marry C. said to be "living apart together" D. less likely to have a happy marriage D. less likely to have a happy marriage
Which factor has the GREATEST long-term effect on a marriage's quality? A. not living together before marriage B. the partners level of education C. the partners personalities D. the number of times the partners change jobs C. the partners' personalities
Committed partners who maintain separate homes but function as a committed couple are said to be: A. living apart together B. residing in an empty nest C. avoiding marriage D. consequential strangers A. living apart together
After children have grown, MOST couples find that: A. their financial strains are overwhelming B. their happiness increases C. there are more fights over equity in domestic work D. less time is spent in shared activities B. their happiness increases
Manuel and Rosa are married and their youngest child just left home. Typically, their marriage quality should: A. remain constant B. worsen C. be tumultuous as they've grown apart D. improve since they have more time to spend together D. improve since they have more time to spend together
Hal and Bob had a stressful marriage for years, but has rebounded and improved. Therefore: A. Better together than alone B. stress motivates them to work together C. divorce is eminent D. learning to understand and forgive promotes happiness D. Learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness
Current objective research data from a large, randomly selected sample of same-sex partners is: A. not yet available B. available for specific areas in the US C. inconclusive about trends D. available for indicators dealing with income and career only A. Not yet available
When a US couple has an empty nest, typical partners will feel: A. empty B. distraught C. happier D. angry C. happier
According to the text, the most current US census _____ the number of US households with same-sex couples. A. did not report B. underreported C. overreported D. accurately stated B. underreported
There was a 31% increase in same-sex couples in the US in 6 years because: A. definitions used in the census changed B. same-sex was legalized C. an effort was made to encourage same-sex couples D. people are now more willing to state they are gay D. People are now more willing to state they are gay or lesbian
One of the MOST influential factors in divorce is A. years of education completed by each spouse B. whether the couple owns a home C. whether it is a first marriage or not D. whether the couple has children C. whether it is a first marriage or not
What proportion of all first marriages end in divorce? A. 1/8 B. 1/3 C. 2/3 D. 3/4 B. 1/3
Which is NOT a long-term impact of divorce? A. an increase in income B. challenges for relationships with children C. severed friendships D. decreased self-esteem A. an increase in income
Research finds that women typically suffer from divorce more than men do, but that many divorced men experience: A. difficulty meeting new women B. increased loneliness C. unresolved anger over the breakup D. increased financial challenges B. increased loneliness
Which factor does NOT make divorce more likely? A. a large age difference between spouses B. financial challenges C. strong religious views D. a high divorce rate in the couple's cohort C. strong religious views
Divorce is MOST likely to occur within the first ____ years of a wedding. A. 1 B. 2 C. 5 D. 10 C. 5
Half of cohabitation relationships end: A. within the first year B. within 2 years C. after 5 years D. after 8 years B. within 2 years
Which statement about remarriage in the US is true? A. most people remarry within 2 years of a divorce B. remarriage is more likely after 40 C. about 25% of marriages are remarriages for one partner D. men are more likely than women to remarry D. men are more likely to remarry than women
Rates of remarriage are highest for those who: A. have infants B. have teenager children C. are of the lowest SES D. have the most education D. have the most education
Research indicates that remarried people: A. are unlikely to divorce B. report more happiness than do people in first marriages C. have greater chance of divorce than people in their first marriages D. are worse off financially than when alone C. have a greater chance of divorce than do people in first marriages
Evelyn has 2 kids and wants to remarry. She is MOST likely to marry a man who: A. Has children from a previous marriage B. has no children C. has never been married D. is a widower A. has children from a previous marriage
At least initially, remarriage brings which conditions? A. poorer health B. financial insecurity C. better health D. the same level of happiness as in the first marriage C. better health
Lena and Greg are 30 year olds with PhDs. They are entering their first marriage with each other. Statistically, their marriage will: A. end in divorce B. be consistently satisfactory C. lead to financial insecurity D. last until they die D. last until they die
According to Erikson, an adult's failure to achieve generativity results in: A. intermittent feelings of loneliness B. stagnation and personal dissatisfaction C. childlessness and depression D. difficulties in mate selection or friendship B. Stagnation and personal dissatisfaction
According to Erikson, the developmental crisis that occurs after intimacy versus isolation is: A. initiative vs guilt B. identity vs role confusion C. generativity vs stagnation D. integrity vs despair C. generativity vs stagnation
According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating: A. autonomy B. generativity C. diffusion D. altruism B. generativity
Common ways to be generative include caregiving, employment that allows for personal growth, and: A. goal-setting exercises B. financial security C. creativity D. travel C. creativity
Mel is a retired stockbroker who enjoys tutoring children at the YMCA. He is demonstrating the psychosocial stage of: A. generativity versus stagnation B. integrity vs despair C. identity vs role confusion D. industry vs inferiority A. generativity vs stagnation
The primary form that generativity takes is: A. being guided by the younger generation. B. parenting or guiding a younger generation C. belonging to a religious organization D. volunteering in the community B. parenting or guiding a younger generation
Worldwide, problems and stress tend to _____ as family size _____. A. increase; increases B. increase; decreases C. decrease; increases D. remains constant; decreases A. increase; increases
Mom and dad have a kid in pre-k, causing financial stress and routine changes. This demonstrates: A. They are bad parents B. Their children are assholes C. They are trying too hard to please the kids D. parenting is a dynamic process D. Parenting is a dynamic process
Approx. what proportion of adults in North American become stepparents, foster parents, or adoptive parents? A. 1/8 B. 1/4 C. 1/3 D. 1/2 C. 1/3
Families with non biological kids have greater issues with attachment because: A. Stepkids run away B. Some kids remain strongly attached to their bio parents C. parents do not accept the kids into their families D. Parents' bio kids feel threatened B. Some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents.
In foster parent families, what type of bond is better for both parent and child? A. replacement B. loving C. distant D. friendly B. loving
Average age of stepchild is 9, this means: A. likely strongly connected to bio parents B. no formed attachments to family C. not possible to develop new family bonds D. due to egocentrism, they don't care about changes in family structure A. They are likely to be strongly connected to their biological parents
What disadvantage do stepparents have that adoptive parents don't? A. kids may be strongly connected to bio parents B. legal connection to kids C. No real role in child's daily life D. They are dissatisfied with their role as parents A. The children may be strongly connected to their biological parents
Emily is a kinkeeper. This means she is responsible for: A. financial stability B. caring for grandkids while their parents work C. gathering the family for holidays and disseminating information D. visiting family in care homes C. Gathering the family for holidays and disseminating information
In a typical family, the kinkeeper is MOST apt to be: A. young adult son B. middle-aged father C. first grandchild D. middle-aged mother D. Middle-aged mother
Which is true about "sandwich generation? A. Many adults do not feel burdened by their responsibilities B. It's the reality of most middle-aged lives C. Conveys financial burden of caring for elderly family D. Only older adults care for younger kin A. Many adults do not feel burdened by their responsibilities
Since they are called on to help both the older and younger generations of the family, middle-aged adults have been called the: A. Midlife generation B. family caregivers C. kinkeepers D. sandwich generation D. Sandwich generation
The belief that family members should be supportive of one another even if it means sacrificing individual freedom and success is: A. Stepmothers B. familism C. a close-knit family D. kinship B. familism
Celina makes sacrifices to take care of her elderly dad. Her belief in ____ makes it the right thing to do. A. generativity B. progeny loyalty C. generational responsibility D. familism D. familism
Familism is the belief that: A. Family members take care of each other B. families must encourage independence C. familiarity precedes family bonds D. family members should live together for economic reasons A. family members take care of each other
People tend to display their wealth as a way of asserting their A. independence B. mood C. status D. job C. status
Over the last 50 years, average income in the US has: A. stayed the same after inflation B. tripled C. quadrupled D. doubled D. doubled
Elderly vote against cutting Medicare benefits, but do not want them extended to members of younger generations in fear it will bankrupt the nation. They think this way due to their: A. senility B. risk aversion C. dementia D. familism B. risk aversion
When young people are first entering the workforce and establishing themselves in their career, what do they tend to consider as the most important? A. intrinsic rewards B. extrinsic rewards C. pride D. pension B. Extrinsic rewards
With regard to paid work, older employees tend to have ____ compared to younger employees. A. less absenteeism B. more problems with lateness C. less job commitment D. more extrinsic motivation A. less absenteeism
Mike got laid off. He wants not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the ______ of the work. A. status B. extrinsic rewards C. secondary gains D. intrinsic rewards D. intrinsic rewards
A single parent with 3 kids needs a livable wage, good benefits, and retirement plan. She is focused on the _________ of work. A. intrinsic rewards B. self-fulfilling prophecy C. extrinsic rewards D. secondary gains C. extrinsic rewards
According to a 2010 study, what percentage of the US labor force is female? A. 25% B. 47% C. 83% D. 90% B. 47%
Between the ages of 23 and 44, the average working in the US has _____ separate employers. A. 2 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10 C. 7
One study on the impact of changing employment found that people who changed jobs frequently before age 36 were ___ times more likely to have health problems by 42. A. 2 B. 3 C. 5 D. 10 B. 3
Benito lost his job of 20 years. At 39, finding a new job is stressful because: A. he will absolutely have to relocate his family B. employers rarely hire people his age C. He cannot learn new skills D. it may not offer equal pay or benefits D. it may not offer equal pay or benefits
A traditional work schedule usually benefits: A. consumers B. workers C. employers D. no one B. workers
Which statement about employees who work overtime is true? A. Overtime always decreases job satisfaction B. If paid extra, workers are satisfied with overtime C. If required to work overtime, there is less job satisfaction D. overtime is traditional C. Workers who are required to work overtime feel less job satisfaction
Employers that allow workers to choose some hours they work offer: A. telecommuting B. part-time C. flextime D. family leave C. flextime
Lloyd works at home and checks in with his far away office via email and phone calls. Lloyd is: A. a fat fuck B. commuting C. masturbating D. telecommuting D. telecommuting
Whether or not a worker has a nonstandard, flexible, or telecommuting schedule is most like to depend on the worker's: A. family responsibilities B. age C. gender D. industry D. industry
Small things that go unnoticed by the majority group but that seem aggressive to the minority group are called: A. micro-aggressions B. stress aggressions C. frustrations D. annoyances A. micro-aggressions
Employment is ___ adult psychosocial health. A. absolutely necessary for B. not a key part of C. one factor contributing to D. rarely a positive contributor to C. one factor contributing to
A couple has been married 6 years. Which statement is most likely true? A. Lady works more hours than before marriage B. Man's salary is lower than had he stayed single C. Lady's salary is lower than had she stayed single D. Man works more than before D. Man works more hours than before he was married
Created by: knagle90