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Pharm - Gastro

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology from First Aid 2013

QuestionAnswer
H2 Blockers: Naming, MOA, Use, Tox Nom: Cimetidine, "-idine" MOA: rev block histmaine receptors decrease H+ secretion by parietal cells Use: Peptic ulcer, gastritis, reflux Tox: CYP450 interactions, anti-androgenic
PPI's: Naming, MOA, Use, Tox Nom: Omeprazole, "-azole" MOA: irrev block H+/K+ ATP-ase at parietal cc Use: ucler, gastritis, reflux, ZES Tox: Risk of C.diff infxn, pneumonias, hip fractures and dec Mg2+ with long use
Bismuth, sucralfate: MOA and Use Creates a physical webbing-mesh to protect an ulcer and increases the mucous barrier. Use with ETEC and ulcer healing.
Misoprostol: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: PGE1 analog, inc mucous, dec acid Use: Prevent NSAID-induced ulcers also maintains PDA and ripens cervix Tox: Diarrhea and abortive agent
What is Octreotide? How should you use it? What are its GI toxicities? Somatostatin analog. Used for: Acromegaly, varices, VIP-oma, carcinoid Tox: Nausea, cramps, steatorrhea
Name three mineral-based antacids. What side effects are common to all? Mg hydroxide Al hydroxide Ca-carbonate All cause hypokalemia and poor absorption.
Side effects of Mg hydroxide? MG = "must go" to the bathroom! Diarrhea.
Side effects of Al hydroxide? Aluminum = "minimum" amount of feces -> constipation. Also, hypophosphatemia.
Side effects of Calcium carbonate antacid? Hypercalcemia. Can chelate and reduce the effictiveness of other drugs (e.g., tetracycline).
Name some osmotic laxatives? How might they be misused? Mg hydroxide, Mg citrate, Lactulose Draw out water via osmotic load. Abused by bulimics.
In addition to functioning as a laxative, lactulose also treats what? Hyperammonemia. It promotes NH4+ excretion.
Infliximab: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: monoclonal Ab to TNF-alpha Use: Crohn's, UC, RA Tox: infection, reactivated TB, oligospermia
Sulfasalazine (5-ASA): MOA, Use, Tox MOA: ASA(Aspirin) + sulfapyridine(antibact) Use: Ulcerative colitis Tox: malaise, nausea, sulfa tox, oligospermia
Ondansetron: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: 5-HT antagonist at area postrema Use: anti-emetic, e.g., for chemo Tox: headache, constipation
Metoclopramide: MOA, Use, Tox MOA: D2 receptor antagonist, inc LES tone Use: gastroparesis post surgery, anti-emetic Tox: Parkinsonism, C/I with obstruction
Created by: wmwebb89