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Excelsior Exam

The thumb is considered to be ______ to the finger. lateral
What term refers to the lower arm? antebrachium
The sural and crural are anatomical terms for the ___. lower leg
The epigastric region is a region that is part of what cavity? abdominopelvic cavity
The hypogastric region is immediately inferior to the ____region. umbilical
The spleen is located in the ____ region. left hypochondriac
The maintenance of an optimal internal environment is termed ___. homeostasis
When the body temperature rises, the body has ways to correct the situation and reduce the body temperature back to the normal range. This is an example of ___. negative feedback mechanism
The process of childbirth is an example of what type of feedback mechanism? positive feedback mechanism
In order to determine the atomic mass unit of an atom; you would have to add the number of ____ to the number of _____. protons, neutrons
What orbits around the nucleus of an atom? electrons
When the number of _____ change, the atom becomes an isotope. neutrons
Atoms arranged in the first column on the periodic table are arranged in that manner because they have _____ _____. common characteristics
What subatomic particle of an atom cannot change? protons
The last column on the periodic table consist of inert atoms. These atoms will not become _____. ions
Atoms that have the same number of protons but yet a different number of neutrons are called an _____. isotope
Amino acids bonded together will form a ____. protein molecule
Molecules that store and process information in the cells are collectively called____. nucleic acids
Carbon dioxide has how many double bonds? 2
A solution that has a pH of 3 is how many times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 6? 1,000
pH is a measure of what ions in solution? hydrogen
A solution that stabilizes the pH of a solution is a____ buffer
What cell organelles produce cellular energy? Mitochondria
What cell organelle produce protein? ribosomes
Chromosomes are structures that are composed of _____ molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid
The cell membrane is composed of how many layers? 2
What molecule is found only in the oter layer of the cell membrane? Glycolipids
The molecule that transports information from the DNA molecule to the ribosomes of the cell for the purpose of producing protein is ribonucleic acid
The movement of water from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration across a cell membrane is called _____. process of osmosis
If the extracellular fluid considered of higher concentration of solutes than the intracellular fluid, the extracellular fluid would be called _____. hypertonic
A cell that is exposed to a hypertonic environment will ______. dehydrate
The phase of mitosis where the paired chromatids are being pulled apart is called _____. anaphase
The phase of mitosis where the paired chromatids line up in the center of the nuclear region is called _______. metaphase
At the end of cell reproduction, one cell will have become how many cells? 2
Adipose cells belong to what tissue category? connective tissue
When viewing cells in the microscope, the cells that have a striped appearance are the ________. skeletal muscle cells
Cells that contract under involuntary control are ________. smooth muscle cells
The most superficial layer of the epidermis is the ________. stratum corneum
Melanocytes are cells that_____________. produce a pigment to protect the skin
Which layer of the skin protects against invading pathogens? epidermis
Glands that are involved in lubricating the skin are called _______. sebaceous glands
Glands that produce perspiration for cooling purposes are called_______ merocrine glands
A plugged ________gland may result in pimple formation sebaceous
The suture of the skull that articulates the two parietal bones is called the ______ suture. sagittal
How many temporal bones are there in the skull? 2
What is the name of the skull bone that makes up the posterior skull? occipital
What is considered the "upper" jaw? maxilla
The inferior portion of the nasal septum is called the _________ vomer
The "cheek" bones are anatomically known as the _________ bones zygomatic
What is the name of the foramen the spinal cord passes through? Foramen magnum
The foramen spinosum is a little posterior to the______ foramen ovale
The large foramen located on the maxillary bones is the _______ infraorbital foramen
Vertebra number one that hinges with the skull is called the _______ atlas
How many lumbar vertebrae are there? 5
Humans have how many pairs of ribs? 12
What bone consist of the "elbow"? Ulna
How many carpals are there per wrist? 8
The bones that make up the back of the hand are called the _______ metacarpals
Which bone consist of the greater trochanter? femur
Which bone of the lower leg is lateral to the other? fibula
How many tarsal bones are there per ankle? 7
What muscle is lateral to the palmaris longus? flexor carpi radialis
What muscle is lateral to the semitendinosus? biceps femoris
What is the name of the major muscle located near the parotid salivary glands and is used for closing the jaw for chewing purposes? masseter
The main functioning unit of a muscle is the _____ muscle sarcomere
During muscle contraction, one of the protein filaments slide. What is the filament that slides? Actin
Cross-bridges stretch and bond to what filament? Actin
What is the name of the cells that are responsible for conducting impulses? Neurons
Neurotransmitters are released from the _______ axons
The most abundant ions located on the outside of the neuron are ________ ions sodium
Stimulation of the reticular activating system will keep a person ________ alert
The bundle of nerve fibers that "connect" the left hemisphere with the right hemisphere are called the______ corpus callosum
The thalamus and hypothalamus are part of the_______ region of the brain. diencephalon
What is not part of the nerve plexus system? thoracic nerves
What is the name of the cells that are responsible for conducting impulses? Neurons
Neurotransmitters are released from the _______ axons
The most abundant ions located on the outside of the neuron are ________ ions sodium
The brachial plexus consist of nerves that emerge from the _______ cervical and brachial region
The phenic nerve is part of the _______ plexus cervical
The meninges are membranes that surround the ______ and _________ brain, spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the choroid plexus
Cerebrospinal fluid flows between the ________ and _______ pia mater, arachnoid
Stimulation of what nerve will cause the pupils of the eyes to contract? parasympathetic
Stimulation of what nerve will cause the pupils to dilate? sympathetic
Stimulation of the vagus nerve can cause the heart rate to slow down. The vagus nerve is what kind of nerve? parasympathetic
How many pair of cranial nerves are there? 12
What is the number for the cranial nerve that is involved in sending impulses to the occipital lobe for the interpretation of vision? II
An affliction of what cranial nerve may result in the condition known as Bell's palsy. facial nerve
The optic disc of the eye is the region where _______ and the ____ emerges from the eye. blood vessels, optic nerve
What ossicle is connected directly to the ear drum? malleus
The optic nerve is located... a little bit medial to the center of the eye
The posterior pituitary gland releases what hormone? antidiuretic hormone
What hormone is involved in sperm production? follicle stimulating hormone
The adenohypophysis is known as the____ anterior pituitary
An affliction of what cranial nerve may result in the condition known as Bell's palsy. facial nerve
The optic disc of the eye is the region where _______ and the ____ emerges from the eye. blood vessels, optic nerve
What ossicle is connected directly to the ear drum? malleus
The optic nerve is located... a little bit medial to the center of the eye
The posterior pituitary gland releases what hormone? antidiuretic hormone
What hormone is involved in sperm production? follicle stimulating hormone
The adenohypophysis is known as the____ anterior pituitary
An affliction of what cranial nerve may result in the condition known as Bell's palsy. facial nerve
The optic disc of the eye is the region where _______ and the ____ emerges from the eye. blood vessels, optic nerve
What ossicle is connected directly to the ear drum? malleus
The optic nerve is located... a little bit medial to the center of the eye
The posterior pituitary gland releases what hormone? antidiuretic hormone
What hormone is involved in sperm production? follicle stimulating hormone
The adenohypophysis is known as the____ anterior pituitary
What hormone acts as a negative feedback to calcitonin? Parathormone
The pancreas releases insulin and also _______ glucagon
What gland produces epinephrine? adrenal medulla
Erythropoiesis is the process of the formation of ___________________ red blood cells
The breakdown of old red blood cells will eventually form _______ bilirubin
A deficiency in _________________will cause the kidney cells to release erythropoietin to begin the process of red blood cell formation oxygen
White blood cells that increase in numbers during an allergic reaction are ________ eosinophils
What is the most common leukocyte when a patient is in homeostasis neutrophils
What leukocyte is typically the first one to respond to a bacterial infection? neutrophils
Heparin is an anticoagulant. It prevents blood from clotting by inhibiting what blood clotting factor? Calcium ions
Platelets are derived from _______ megakaryoblasts
Aspirin is an anticoagulant because it.. reduces platelet stickiness
When discussing blood, the agglutinin is the specific term for the ____ found in the plasma of blood. antibodies
What is the term for the glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells? agglutinogen
Packed blood consist of ______ blood cells only. red
Can type A plasma be donated to a type AB patient? NO
A person with type A blood cannot donate to a person with type B blood. This is because the ________ of the type B recipient will be activated by the ______ of the donor. When this happens, blood will clump. agglutinins, agglutinogens
Blood on the left side of the heart is _____ oxygenated
The right ventricle of the heart pumps blood to the ____ lungs
Cardiac cells are found in what layer of the heart? myocardial layer
The sinoatrial node (pacemaker) is located in the ______ right atrium
The QRS complex of an ECG represents the depolarization of the ________ ventricles
Stimulation of the __________________ will result in ventricular contraction. Purkinje fibers
Blockage of the thoracic duct will hinder the flow of _______ to the ___________________ lymph, left subclavian vein
Lymphocytes are not located where? Brain
Lymphocytes are located where? tonsils, spleen, thymus
What cell primarily produces antibodies? B cells
T cells and B cells are a type of lymphocyte
When the thymus gland fails to produce thymosin, there will be a decreased number of T cells
Blocking T cell activity would cause a decrease in antibody production by the B cells
Air enters into the trachea by passing through the opening to the trachea called the ______ glottis
The palatine tonsils are located in the oropharynx region
The respiratory tubes that branch off the trachea are called the primary bronchi
Blood capillaries that surround the _____ will absorb oxygen. alveoli
The diaphragm muscle moves ______ in order for inhalation to occur. downward
In order to inhale, the thoracic cavity must _______in size thus _________ thoracic pressure increase, decreasing
What percentage of the carbon dioxide produced will be exhaled? 23 %
What acts as a buffer inside the red blood cell? hemoglobin
An increase in carbon dioxide will result in an ________ in hydrogen ions. increase
What is the name of the salivary glands that are located near the masseter muscle? parotid
The ____________ closes over the opening of the trachea to prevent food from going down the trachea epiglottis
The anatomical name for the canine teeth is _____ cuspid
What is the correct sequence for food passing through the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The structures insde the small intestine that are involved in absorbing nutrients into the bloodstream are called _______ villi
Most of the digestion occurs in the_____ small intestine
The Pancreas is an __________structure of digestion. accessory
What is the function of bile? emulsify fat
What organ stores bile? Gallbladder
The small intestine joins the large intestine at the_____ cecum
The functions of the large intestine is to: -get rid of waste-house bacteria, which produce Vitamin K-reabsorb water
The appendix is attached to the cecum
The hormone ______ causes the liver to produce bile and the hormone ________ causes the gallbladder to contract, thereby releasing bile into the small intestine. secretin; cholecystokinin
What hormone is involved in getting the pancreas to release buffers into the small intestine? secretin
What hormone causes the stomach to produce acid? Gastrin
Glycolysis is a metabolic process that occurs in the.... cytosol of the cell
The Krebs reactions are a series of metabolic reactions that occur in the mitochondria
What molecule transports hydrogen ions to the electron transport system for the purpose of buffering and ATP protection? NADH
What vitamin becomes NAD? Niacin
The absorption of iron for the purpose of producing hemoglobin requires the presence of Vitamin B-12
What vitamin is necessary for the blood clotting process? K
The cholesterol that is transported to the liver to be incorporated into bile is known as _______________ cholesterol and is transported by _____________. good; HDL
LDL molecules have a tendency to drop cholesterol off in the.... arteries
What urinary tubes exit the kidneys? Ureters
What urinary tubes exit the urinary bladder? Urethra
Which kidney sits higher in the body than the other? Left
The first part of a nephron is the.... glomerular capsule
The kidneys are made of cortex region and the medulla region. Most of the nephrons are in the ______ region of the kidneys. cortex
Waste products are forced out of the glomerular capillaries into the _______ of the nephron. glomerular capsule
One function of the kidneys is to "cleanse" the blood or filter it. This process occurs at the ______________ and ________________ glomerular capillaries; glomerular capsule
Approximately what percentage of the water that enters the kidneys is put back into the bloodstream to prevent dehydration? 99%
After filtration, which vessel consists of "cleaner" blood? renal vein
What is the name of the tube that transports sperm cells from the testes to the penile urethra? ductus deferens
The first gland the sperm cells swim past is the_______ seminal vesicle
A hormone from the pituitary gland initiates the production of sperm cells. What is the name of this hormone? follicle stimulating hormone
Successful fertilization of the egg occurs in the.... distal two-thirds of the uterine tubes
When a follicle ruptures, it releases the egg. This rupture follicle is now called a... corpus luteum
The ruptured follicle will secrete.... progesterone
A decrease in ______ will initiate the menstrual cycle. progesterone
A decrease in _____ will initiate menopause. follicle stimulating hormone
What releases the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone? the zygote and placenta
How are the hands positioned in the anatomical position? hands are at the side of the body with palms facing anterior
When you discuss a patient, you refer to thumbs as _____ structures compared to the position of the little finger lateral
When you discuss a patient, you refer to the hallux as a _______ structure compared to the position of the little toe medial
What is the anatomical term that refers to the mouth? oris
What is the name of the first part inferior to the oris? mentis
The armpit area is called the ____ axilla
The wrist area is called the _____ and the ankle area is called the _____. carpal; tarsal
What is the name of the first part that is inferior to the posterior brachium? cubital (oclecranon)
The brachium is located ________ to the antecubital. superior or proximal
Posterior to the knee region is the _____ popliteal
What is the name of the first part that is superior to the sura? popliteal
The area between the right hypochondriac and the left hypochondriac is called the... epigastric
The ascending colon of the large intestine is located in the _______ region. right lumbar
The plane that passes through the body and separates it into anterior and posterior portions is the.... frontal
The diaphragm muscle actually "divides" the body as a ________ cut. transverse
The body responds to bacteria by creating fever. This is an example of what type of feedback mechanism? positive
A pH of 3 is how many times more acidic than a pH of 7? 10,000
A pH of 8 is how many times more basic than a pH of 6? 100
Which cell organelle produces protein? ribosomes
The mitochondria produce______ ATP
What is the molecule that "delivers" a message to the ribosomes telling them to make protein? messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)
Transcription occurs at the _____________ and translation occurs at the _______________ DNA molecule; ribosomes
The most abundant molecule that make up the cell membrane is the.... phospholipid
What is the name of the molecule that will form a channel to allow material to pass in and out of the cell. protein
In hypertonic ECF the ECF has a ___________ concentration of solutes than the ICF has. higher
In hypotonic ECF the ECF has a _______ concentration of solutes than the ICF has. lower
A cell contains 30% water and the environment (ECF) the cell sits in is hypertonic. In order for this statement to be true, the percentage of solutes in the ECF has to be _____ greater than 70%
The environment (ECF) a cell sits in contains 20% solutes and the cell itself is considered to be hypertonic. In order for this statement to be true, the percentage of solutes inside the cell has to be _____ 20%
What is the name of the phase of mitosis where the spindle fibers retract and therefore begin to pull the paired chromatids apart? Anaphase
We can first begin to see the paired chromatids during which phase of cell reproduction? Prophase
The main way to identify cardiac cells is to look for__________ intercalated disc
The main way to identify cartilage cells is via the presence of a large____ lacuna
What cell type is classified a having involuntary action other than cardiac cells? smooth muscle cells
What type of cells provides us with our second line of defense? Leukocytes (white blood cells)
What integumentary gland is involved in acne production? Sebaceous gland
What integumentary gland is involved in cooling the body? Merocrine gland
The mastoid process is _______________ (directional term) to the external auditory meatus posterior
The lateral edge of the sphenoid bone is _________ to the temporal bone. anterior
The lacrimal bone is immediately anterior to the _______________bone. ethmoid
What is the name of the bone that makes up the posterior one-third of the roof of the mouth? posterior palatine
The temporal mandibular joint is made of ________ mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle of the mandible
The coronoid process of the mandible is (dt)___________ to the mandibular condyle. anterior
From an inferior view, the foramen lacerum is located medial to the foramen _____________ ovale
From an inferior view, the carotid canal is located ________________ to the foramen spinosum posterior
What is the name of the vertebra that attaches to the skull? Atlas (cervical 1)
We have (#)_________ thoracic vertebrae and _______lumbar vertebrae and _________ cervical vertebrae 12; 5; 7
The glenoid cavity (fossa) is a (dt)______________ structure on the scapula lateral
The condyle lateral to the trochlea of the humerus is the _______________ capitulum
What bone moves when you pronate the antebrachium? radius
Our elbow is actually the _________ olecranon
The head of the femur sits in the _______________ acetabulum
What is the name of the lateral bone of the lower leg? fibula
Describe the location of the extensor digitorium. This muscle is located on the posterior side of the antebrachium
Describe the location of the biceps femoris this muscle is located on the posterior side of the femur
During muscle contraction, the cross-bridges will extend from the __________ filaments and attach to the ________ filaments myosin; actin
What bandof the sarcomere consists of overlapping myosin and actin? "A" band
(68) The metencephalon consist of the ________ and _________ cerebellum; pons
The diencephalon consist of the ________ and _______ thalamus; hypothalamus (also the pituitary gland)
Which brain structure tells us that we are thirst from time to time? Hypothalamus
What part of the brain gives us the "urge" to cough from time to time? Medulla oblongata
Identify the meninges from the brain tissue to the skull Pia mater, subarachnoid, dura mater
The cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the _______ and serves to help protect the brain and spinal cord. choroid plexus
Which of the autonomic nerves is involved in pupil dilation? Sympathetic
Which of the autonomic nerves decreases the heart rate? Parasympathetic
The trochlear nerve is cranial nerve number ___ IV (4)
The vagus nerve is cranial nerve number ___ X (10)
The specialized cells associated with the retina of the eye are called _____ and _____ rods; cones
The cells that make up the taste buds are called ______ cells gustatory
The neurohypophysis releases _____ and _____ oxytocin; antidiuretic hormone
What hormone comes from the adenohypophysis and targets the adrenal cortex? Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
The thyroid gland releases..... calcitonin or thyroxine or triiodothyronine
Adrenalin is produced by what gland? Adrenal medulla
Erythropoietin will target the _____ and cause _____ bone marrow; red blood cell formation
The thyroid stimulating hormone comes from the _____ and targets the _____ adenohypophysis; thyroid gland
Identify the hormone that causeshe nephrons to lose sodium ions to the toilet? Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
If a patient had very little sodium ions in their blood, they would produce excess amounts of _____ to bring the sodium ion levels back to normal. aldosterone
A lack of _____ will cause excess glucose in the urine insulin
A lack of _____ could result in a decrease in blood calcium levels. parathormone
What causes EPO? A decrease in oxygen going to the kidney cells
EPO targets... bone marrow
Erythrocytes have a lifespan of only 120 days. They do not live very long because they have neither a _______ nor any ___________ nucleus; cell organelles
What is the main protein molecule found inside an erythrocyte? Hemoglobin
What is the normal percent value for neutrophils in a non-sick patient? 40%- 60%
What is the normal percent value for eosinophils in a non-sick patient? 3%
What is the name for blood clotting factor IV? Calcium ions (CA+)
What is the name for blood clotting factor VIII? Antihemophiliac factor
People with blood type A have agglutinogen ____ on their erthrocytes and agglutinin _____ in their plasma. A; b
People with blood type B have agglutinogen ____ on their erthrocytes and agglutinin ____ in their plasma. B; a
Is the following packed cell donation safe? Donate AB to type B? NO!
Is the following packed cell donation safe? Donate type B to typr AB? YES!
Is the following packed cell donation safe? Type B to type AB? NO!
Is the following plasma donation safe? Type AB to type B? YES
People with blood type A- (neg) have what kind of agglutinogen and agglutinin? A agglutinogens and b agglutinins
People wih blood type AB +(pos) have what kind of agglutinogens and agglutinin? A agglutinogens, B agglutinogens and D agglutinogens and no agglutinins
In order for blood to enter into the right ventricle, the blood must pass through the ______ valve. tricuspid
Blood in the pulmonary trunk came from which chamber of the heart? Right ventricle
What does the p wave of an ECG recording represent? The p wave represents atrial depolarization, which is the travel of the impulses from the SA node to the AV node
The largest bump on an ECG is represented by the letters _____ and is the recording of which heart activity? QRS; represents the depolarization of the ventricles, which is a recording of the nerve activity within the Purkinje fibers. The nerves of the atria are also repolarizing at this time.
Blood in the right subclavian artery will enter into the ______ artery next. axillary
Blood from the brachial artery will flow into the ______ artery next. radial and ulnar
Blood in the popliteal vein will enter into the ______ vein next. femoral
Blood in the right subclavian vein will enter the _____ vein next. right brachiocephalic
The glycolipid associated with erythrocytes is called an _________ and glycolipid associated with disease causing organisms is called an ______ agglutinogen; antigen
What type of lymphocytes are responsible for producing antibodies? B cells
When we come into contact with a viral antigen, we develop immunity against that specific antigen. However, that same viral antigen may attack us again next year. We are immune to it because our _______ will respond immediately. memory B cells
The reason we become sick with the flu a second time (and more) is because the second time was caused by a flu virus that had a different __________ antigen
The carina is the point where the ______ trachea branches to form the two primary bronchi
Which respiratory tubes do not consist of any cartilage? bronchioles
If the _____ tonsil swells it would make breathing through the nose very difficult pharyngeal
The ______ tonsils are located in the nasopharynx region pharyngeal
In order to inhale, the diaphragm muscle must move in which direction? downward (inferiorly)
When the diaphragm muscle is contracting, it is moving in which direction? downward
If you increase the air pressure inside your thoracic cavity, air will go out the ______ lungs
If the outside air pressure is 780 mm Hg, air will enter the lungs if we ________ the size of our thoracic cavity to change the air pressure to a value ____________ increase; less than 780 mm Hg
What percentage of the carbon dioxide we produce will eventually form hydrogen ions in the red blood cell? 70%
What percentage of the carbon dioxide generated is normally exhaled? 23%
If a person is already in the process of hyperventilating, their blood pH will _______ go up
Carbon dioxide binds with water and thus produces _______, which ionizes and forms _____ and _______ carbonic acid; hydrogen ions; bicarbonate ions
Nutrients will pass from the small intestines into the bloodstream by being absorbed through the _______ villi
The pancreas produces hormones and _______ digestive enzymes
Identify the digestive enzymes that come from the pancreas and digests protein. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Identify the digestive enzyme that comes from the pancreas and digests fat. lipase
The heart has its own special covering, loose fitting inextensible sac called the .... pericardium
The bulk of the heart wall is the thick, contractile middle layer called the... myocardium
The type of membranous tissue that lines the heart and blood vessels is the .... endothelium
Mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only are called... valves
The free edges of the atrioventricular valves are anchored to the... papillary muscles
The four structure that compose the conduction system of the heart are the... SA node, AV node, AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers
Microscopic vessels that carry blood from small arteries to small veins are... capillaries
The outermost layer of the larger blood vessels is the... tunica adventitia
These sphincters function as regulatory valves that reduce the flow of blood through a network of capillaries when they contract and constrict the arterioles... precapillary sphincters
Blood flow from the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body and back to the heart is referred to as... systemic circulation
The ______ and _____ are supplied with blood from the left subclavian artery. head; upper extremeties
A few arteries open into other branches of the same or other arteries. This is called... arterial anastomas
The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the... pelvis
Renal veins drin blood from the... kidney
During pregnancy, what happens to the oxygenated blood returned from the placenta via the umbilical vein? It flows into the inferior vena cava
Chemical digestion requires the secretion of _____ and ______ into the lumen of the GI tract. digestive enzymes; bile
The process of deglutition includes.. -the oral stage, -pharyngeal stage, -esophageal stage
The wave like ripple of the muscle layer of the GI tract is called... peristalsis
Fats and other nutrients in the duodenum stimulate the intestinal mucosa to release a hormone called... gastric inhibitory peptide
The chemical process in which a compound unites with water and then splits into simpler compounds is called... hydrolysis
Because fats are insoluble in water, they must be... emulsified
Saliva contains the enzyme... amylase
Stimulation of gastric juice secretion occurs in all of the following phases except.. digestive phase
The ejection of bile from the gallbladder is controlled by which hormones? CCK and secretin
The final step in lipid transport by the intestines is the formation of... chylomicrons
The act of expelling feces is called... defacation
______ is a general term referring to the inflammation of the liver. hepatitis
The endocrine system does what? -releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body, -releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs, -produces effects that can last for hours, days, or even longer, -can alter gene ac
Hormones that are amino acid derivative- epinephrine, -melatonin, -thyroxine (T4), -norephinephrine
When adenyl cyclase is activated _____ is formed. cAMP
What hormones act by a second messenger system? glucagen, -epinephrine, -growth hormone, -ACTH
This hypophyseal structure receives signals from the hypothalamus via the hypophyseal portal vein: adenohypophysis
Low blood glucose level typically results in the secretion of.. glucagon, -thyroxine (T4), -hGH
The action of glucocorticoids involves many functions. One of which is that it... increases glucose levels
This hormone acts on the intestines and causes increased calcium absorption: calcitrol
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) causes -activation of thyroid follicular cells, -increased iodide trapping in thyroid follicles, -increased thyroglobulin synthesis, -increased release of T3/T4
The pancreatic cells that secrete insulin are the... beta cells
The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is activated by the... hypothalamus
If you were to eat four glaze doughnuts and a large pepsi, which hormone would you expect to be secreted at higher levels? insulin
Somatostatin is secreted by the: pancreatic delta cells
Hyposecretion of cortisol can cause: Addison's disease
A tumor in the adrenal zona glomerulosa can cause hypersecretion of hormones produced in that region. What might you expect to find in a patient with such a tumor? increased blood sodium levels
Oxytocin is secreted by the.. neurophypophysis
A lack of or decrease in insulin hormone receptors on cells can result in.. type II diabetes mellitus
Vasopressin is the same hormone as ADH
The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) resets the levels of... controlled conditions in the body in response to stress
What occurs in a muscle during contraction? thick and thin filaments bind to each other, -thick and thin filaments "slide" past each other, -muscle fibers shorten
This process aids in skeletal muscle relaxation after contraction. acetylcholinesterease degrades acetylcholine
The stiffness of muscle tissue in rigor mortis partially results from.. excessive calcium release in muscle
A single motor neuron may innervate as few as 3-5 fibers muscles of the.. eye
When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal of the motor neuron acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft
Lack of acetylcholinesterase in the synaptic cleft would result in... excessive, continuous stimulation of the muscle fiber
Curare, a toxin, blocks the acetylcholine receptors on muscle tissue. This would result in inability of the muscle to respond to motor nerve stimulus
Training exercises such as jogging, swimming and aerobics have this effect on skeletal muscle tissue: increased number of mitochondria per muscle fiber
Skeletal muscle is described as.. striated, -voluntary, -multinucleate
The walls of hollow organs and some blood vessels contain this muscle tissue smooth
What is unique to cardiac muscle tissue has intercalated discs
Approximately what percentage of body heat is generated by muscle tissue 85%
A muscle fascicle is a bundle of muscle fibers
The smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle is a sarcomere
The major regulatory proteins in muscle tissue are troponin and tropomyosin
What action is caused by skeletal muscle eye movement
Muscular dystrophy is a congenital disorder characterized by skeletal muscle degeneration
What muscular disorder is characterized by painful musculoskeletal "tender points" Fibromyalgia
Anabolic steroids have these effects.. builds muscle proteins, -increases muscle strength, -can result in liver cancer and heart disease
What is true about aging and the muscular system? aging is associated with decreased myoglobin production
The dense connective tissue covering outer surface of bone diaphyses is termed periosteum
What is considered a sesamoid bone? patella
These two components in bone are responsible for the hardness and pliability of bone. mineralized salts and collagen
A fracture in the shaft of a long bone would be a break in the.. diaphysis
Yellow marrow consist of adipose
Chondroblasts produce cartilage matrix
These structures are at the center of compact bone lamellae and carry blood vessels along the bone length Haversian canals
The cell that is responsible for maintaining bone matrix once it has formed is.. osteocytes
Soft connective tissue membranes between the cranial bones at birth are... fontanelles
Endochondral and intramembranous are two mechanisms of embryonic skeletal ossification
What are some cranial sutures lambdoidal, -coronal, -sagittal, -squamous
The two pair of bones that make up the hard palate are the right and left.. palatine and maxillae
The two bones that make up the posterior nasal septum are the... vomer and ethmoid
Articulations refers to joints
What bones are part of the cranium sphenoid, -ethmoid, -occipital
What bones are part of the axial skeleton sternum, -mandible, -sacrum
The Hunchback of Notre Dame probably suffered from kyphosis
Incomplete closure of the vertebral column results in spina bifida
The thickened cartilage "cushions" found in the knee and vertebral joints that absorb compression are.. the menisci
A ligament running along the side of the knee joint is a... collateral
The Haversian (central) canal in each osteon contains blood vessels
This hormone stimulates the breakdown of bone and the increase in blood calcium levels parathyroid hormone
The most common type of exocrine gland is the merocrine
Epithelial that consist of more than one layer of cells is termed stratified
The matrix of connective tissue is composed of fibers and ground substance
Small hair like structures on the surface of some epithelial cells are termed cilia
Cells that are located in bone tissue chondroblasts
What tissue heals the quickest after injury? epithelium
The small holes in which some connective tissue cells reside are termed lacunae
Describe skeletal muscle tissue fibers striated, -voluntary, -multinucleate
What suffix implies "growth" or "formation" -blast
A tissue viewed under the microscope displays cells in little holes, densely packed fibers and no blood vessels. This describes fibrocartilage
What characteristic can describe epithelial tissue it forms the glands of the body
The serous membrane lining the surface of the lung is the visceral pleura
The principal organ of the urinary system is the kidney
The branch of the abdominal aorta that brings blood into each kidney is the renal artery
The ureter of each kidney conducts urine inferiorly from the kidney to the bladder
The mechanism for voiding urine begins with the voluntary relaxation of the external sphincter muscle of the bladder
The capillary network that is fitted neatly into Bowman's capsule is the glomerulus
The ____ structure is important in maintaining blood flow because it secretes rennin when blood pressure to the afferent arteriole drops juxtaglomerular apparatus
Urine is formed by the nephron by means of what processes? filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
Effective filtration pressure (EFP) is determined by comparing the forces that push fluid into the capillary with those that push fluid out of the capillary
Reabsorption takes place by means of active and passive transport mechanism
The loop of Henle reabsorbs water, sodium, chloride
____ has a central role in the regulation of urine volume ADH
Urine is approximately 95% water
Crystallized mineral chunks that develop in the renal pelvis or calyces are called... kidney stones
The term that describes an inflammation of the bladder is cystitis
General tissue swelling caused by an accumulation of fluids in the tissue spaces is called edema
What is the course that urine takes through the kidney? Fluid enters the Bowman's capsule and is conducted through the proximal convoluted tubule, to the loop of Henle and then through the distal convoluted tubule.
Bones are connected to joints by ligaments
What is an example of hinge joint? femur to fibula
The periosteum lines the marrow cavity
The lateral corticospal tracts that convey impulses from the brain to the spinal nerves are examples of spinothalamic tracts
Function of mitochondria formation of chromatin into chromosomes
Hormones are transported in the _____, bound to ______ blood, plasma protein
The junction between two neurons is called synapse
Waste products take which path through the large intestine? Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
What thigh muscles flexes the leg at the knee joint? biceps femoris, semimembranosus, sartorius
A mitral valve defect results in accumulation of blood in the left atrium
The system that protects the body from infection, abrasion, and water loss is known as the integumentary
The part of the blood vessel wall that is in contact with the blood itself is the tunica intima
When the calcium level in the blood rises above normal the ________glands slow their production of hormones parathyroid
An action potential is a _____ impulse neural
The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex
What is true of flagella? -consist of a hallow tube made up of microtubules, -move the cell itself or the adjacent fluid, -manufactured withing the lysosomes
The three main types of epithelial cells are cuboidal, columnar, squamous
Blood returning from the pulmonary circulation frist enters the left atrium
In stratum spinosum, basal cells differentiate and begin to produce keratin
One of the main functions of lymph nodes is to produce lymphocytes
What are some parts of the reticuloendothelial system? Kupffer cells, -monocytes, -spleen macrophages
The muscle that produces a smile is the zygomatic
What are some synovial joints? condyloid, -ball and socket, -gliding
Small molecules that combine with carrier protein to become antigens are haptens
Once air passes through the posterior internal nares in next goes through the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
What structure keeps the trachea from collapsing? cartilaginous rings
What structure in the lungs actually participate in gas exchange? respiratory bronchioles
Calcium acts upon the filaments by uncovering the active sites
Resting potential develops in part because of a slight excess of positive ions outside the cell membrane
What are some connective tissues? blood, adipose, cartilage
What is responsible for transmitting vibrations within the cochlea? endolymph
The pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
The risk of death from burns is roughly proportional to the percentage of _____ _____ that has been damaged body surface
The transmitter substance released by motor neurons at myoneural junctions is acetylcholine
What bones are found in the cranium? frontal, parietal, sphenoid
After passing through the duodenum, food would next enter the jejunum
Among foods rich in carbohydrates are rice and potatoes
Water leaves the nephron by osmosis
Angiotensis II acts as a vasoconstrictor and raises blood pressure
Identify an enzyme that is produced by the small intestine and digest protein Peptidase
An enzyme that comes from the stomach and digest material to form amino acids Pepsin
An enzyme that comes from the pancreas and digests material to form fatty acids Lipase
Hormone that will cause the production of bile secretin
Hormone that causes the gallbladder to release bile. cholecystokinin (CCK)
The hormone that is responsible for helping the small intestine maintain and optimum pH value secretin
The hormone that causes the pancreas to release buffers secretin
The hormone that causes the production of stomach acids gastrin
Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the _______ and the Krebs reactions are a series of chemical reactions that occur in the _________ cytosol of the cell; mitochondria
The conversion of glucose ultimately to pyruvic acid is known as glycolysis
Basically. all the food we eat will become nutrients and will go to what cell organelle? Mitochondria
What are essential amino acids? amino acids that we have to obtain from a good diet. The body cannot make these amino acids
What are nonessential amono acids? are the amino acids that the body can produce. It is not essential to get these from the diet
Some of the excess cholesterol that our body encounters will be transported to the liver by _____. In the liver, this cholesterol will be incorporated into _____. high density lipoprotein (HDL); bile
Why is "good cholesterol" called good? "Good cholesterol" is only good because it is the cholesterol that is ultimately transported out of the body
The ______ exit the kidneys and the ______ exits the urinary bladder. ureters; urethra
Which kidney sits higher in the body than the other kidney? the left is higher than the right
What is the major structures that pass through the renal pyramids? collecting tubules
Water and/or waste that are in the collecting tubules will enter the ______ next. minor calyx (minor calyces)
When we say that the kidneys are putting water back into the blood, they actually are putting water back into the vasa recta
Waste products will enter into the nephron after being "forced" out of the ____ glomerular capillaries
The action of ADH will put approximately _______% of the water back into the bloodstream? 99%
The main functioning unit of the kidneys is the _______ nephron
The sperm cells are produced in special tubes inside the testes called seminiferous tubules
The tube that transports the sperm from the testes to the penile urethra is called ductus deferens
What hormone causes the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones beyond the normal 10 day time period? Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
A decrease in what hormone will initiate menstruation? progesterone
A ruptured follicle is called a corpus luteum
What hormone does the ruptured follicle produce? progesterone and estrogen
A decrease in what hormone will initiate menopause? follicle stimulating hormone
The presence of what hormone indicates pregnancy Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hcg)
Created by: excbchic