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Evolution

Biology

TermDefinition
Evolution process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Charles Darwin scientist who formulated theory of Evolution through natural selection
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck scientist who published flawed theory of the inheritance of acquired traits
Charles Lyell scientist who wrote, Principles of Geology, explaining that processes occurring now have shaped the earth's geological features over long periods of time
James Hutton geologist that published a detailed theory about the forces that have shaped earth
Thomas Malthus in his Essay on the Principles of Population, he predicted that the human population would grow faster than the food supply
Theory of use-and-disuse theory proposed that organisms could alter (change) the size or shape of particular organs by using their bodies in new ways
Acquired characteristics belief that changes such as altered body structures would be inherited
Theory of natural selection process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully
Fitness the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
Struggle for existence members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life
Survival of the fittest process described by Darwin in which the strongest survive
Adaptation an inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
Gene pool consists of all genes including all the different alleles that are present in a population
Artificial selection selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
Homologous structures structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
Analogous structures performing a similar function but having a different evolutionary origin, such as the wings of insects and birds
Vestigial structures organ that serves no useful function in a an organism
Comparative anatomy determining the evolutionary relationships between different species to find similar structures or characteristics
Comparative embryology determining the evolutionary relationships between different species by studying their embryos
Comparative biochemistry the study of the similarities and differences between different living organisms
Fossil record remains of dead organisms that have been preserved by natural processes
Hominid a primate of a family that includes humans and their fossil ancestors
Primate a mammal that includes monkeys, apes, and humans
Evolutionary tree diagram used to represent evolutionary relationships among different living and extinct species
Common descent (ancestry) all species, living and extinct, were derived from common ancestors
Created by: gmottola