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Lecture Six

Alcohol #1

**List some reasons for why we use alcohol. To relieve tension/help you relax, to socialize and meet people, to get drunk, peer pressure, it tastes good, to forget problems, because you are addicted.
**What are the primary reasons for alcohol consumption? There isn't one. It recreational (behavioural) which can segway into an addiction.
**Does alcohol meet out 476 definition of a drug? Yes, its an exogenous chemical that binds to a receptor and initiates a physiological change.
**Drug are usually thought of as illegal substances. What are the consequences of this mindset? We do not treat drugs such as alcohol that are legal seriously, like we do with the illegal drugs. For instance Whitney Houston and Amy Winehouse's deaths were caused by alcohol use. People do not realise the harm alcohol can cause because its not illegal
**Alcohol has the highest ________ index out of commonly cited drugs, when dangers to self and society are considered. Alcohol is a problem for ED services, violence but is still legal harm
**In NZ there was a Temperance movement where people promoted the negativity of alcohol and pushed for Prohibition. Who were the biggest proponents of the Temperance movement? Churches and Women (because their husbands were spending money on alcohol and coming home drunk).
**NZ also had a Continuance Movement where people promoted free will and democratic liberty and pushed for free choice in relation to drinking alcohol. Who were the biggest proponents in this Continuance Movement? Men and liquor industries.
**The idea of prohibiting alcohol in NZ died down after seeing the effects in US (blackmarkets). So now most of NZ things it should be legal BUT REGULATED. How is it regulated today? We regulate who can sell it (not in dairy or school cafe), who can buy it (18+), what is in it (how much alcohol) and how it can be marketed (not to youths)
**Do we get alcohol from plants? YES, because alcohol is made by fermenting sugar or starch, it can be made from several plants e.g. barley, wheat, apples, grapes, potatoes.
**Ethyl Alcohol/Ethanol is NOT the same as what? Explain why you shouldnt drink home made alcohol and why methonal is fatal (why we shouldn't drink moonshine! (cos it might be methonal by accident) Methonol which can be made by accident if you do not make alcohol properly. It can be fatal as it is a CNS depressant, it is a potent toxin, just one standard drink of it can lead to blindness, brain damage and death.
**Describe what 'one dose' of alcohol would be (one standard drink) 1 bottle of beer, 1 glass of wine, 1 shot of liquor. All contain 14 GRAMS of ethonal
**Consumption by a 70kg person would produce a blood alcohol content (BAC) of about? ~0.03. This is just an estimate as people who are 70kg might gave dif. amount of muscle, fat, fed state, rate of metabolism, rate of drinking.
**Alcohol is distributed to all tissues especially _____ _______ tissues? And rapidly crosses the BBB and ____________ barrier water dense tissues, placental
**Alcohol is metabolised mainly in the liver by alcohol _____________ but also in the stomach alcohol can be metabolised up to 15% in a fed state. Alcohol is metabolised 8-10g/hour in zero order kinetics. What does zero order kinetics mean? Means that metabolism of the alcohol takes place at a constant rate independent of the concentration. Increasing the concentration above a certain point does not increase the rate of metabolism. So will be linear on a graph
**In 1960s French researchers noticed that children born to alcoholic mothers had common pattern of dysmorphology. What does this mean? The study of structural birth defects
**Today alcohol is a recognized behavioural and physical teratogen. What does teratogen mean? A teratogen is a drug that causes birth defects in a child if the mothers takes it during pregnancy.
**Maternal alcohol ingestion during critical phases of foetal development can lead to: - CNS dysfunction (high risk). - Growth retardation in utero and neuronatal development. - Facial abnormalities (malformed ears/eyes) - Congenital heart defects
**How do kiwi women score on drinking during pregnancy? (Assigned reading)
**what is the ROA of alcohol? all oral ROA
**describe the absorption of alcohol Alcohol absorption into the blood stream is rapid and complete in 20-90 minutes. Having food in your stomach will slow down absorption
**Describe the distribution of alcohol Alcohol is distributed to all tissues, and rapidly crosses the BBB, especially in water dense tissues.
**Describe the metabolism of alcohol Most is done in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase. But the stomach can metabolize up to15% in a fed state. 8-10grams of alcohol is metabolised per hour in zero order kinetics(at a steady rate no matter how much you drink-independent of the concentration)
**Describe the elimination of alcohol Alcohol is eliminated via renal and pulmonary. Pulmonary means that you breathe some of the alcohol out (5% of total alcohol is cleared via the lungs (alcohol breathe) which is why police use breathalyzers.
**Why might men handle liquor more better than women? *Body mass (they are bigger). *Body composition (bigger muscle mass and adipose mass. *Men have more amount Alcohol Dehydrogenase enzyme for two reasons (1)big body mass->big liver->more enzymes in liver.(2)more enzymes in stomach so breaks down more alc.
**When ethanol metabolises it breaks down into Acetylaldehyde + H2. Why is Acetylaldehyde not pleasant in your system? Because it makes you flush (red face, hot). Makes you sick (vomit, nausea). And gives you headaches
**Disulfiram (Antabuse) inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (blocks this enzyme) which makes acetylaldehyde build up in your body (so you keep feeling like shit). Why would you ever use this drug?? To treat alcoholism. So any time you drink alcohol you feel terrible and it creates a CONDITIONING EFFECT!
**What is the mode of action for alcohol? Alcohol generally shows a spectrum of behavioural effects. With 0.05 BAC you can experience euphoria, behavioural disinhibition. With 0.2 you might exp. altered perceptions. With 0.4-5 you might exp. coma, impaired reflexes, or even death.
**Does the mode of action of alcohol match is general mode of action (for CNS depressant)? Its similar, but CNS depressants, particularly those that also create a euphoria feeling at the beginning
**What is the Mechanism of action (MOA) for alcohol? 2 things (1) It is a GABA(A) agonist so facilitates the GABA(A) receptor activity which leads to chloride influx and hyperpolarize. (2) It is a NMDA receptor antagonist so inhibits NMDA receptor activity which leads to no cation influx and no excitation.
*What MOA of alcohol alters learning and memory and what does this mean? The MOA of being a NMDA receptor antagonist (inhibiting NMDA receptor activity which leads to caution influx and no excitation). So is good if you are drinking to forget.
**There are two possible drug-drug interactions with alcohol. What are they? 1) Synergy with any other drug that facilitates GABA(A) receptor. 2) Synergy with any other drug that blocks NMDA receptor e.g. Alzeimers drugs and Alcohol
**What is cirrhosis? Cirrhosis is when your liver is really enlarged and is replaced with fat cells and scar tissue. This means that any drug such as alcohol is going to be impaired (higher bioavailability and longer half life)
**Describe the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic tolerance of alcohol Pharmacokinetically-liver makes more alcoholdehydrogenase enzymes & pharmacodynamically GABA(A) receptors desensitize or upregulate so when u stop drinkn u seizure**While tolerance develops for behavioural effects, no tolerance occurs for toxicity effects
**Does coffee cure your hangover? NO. Because alcohol has that linear metabolism (zero order kinetics) there is no way to speed it up. We metabolise 8-10grams per hour no matter what! By drinking coffee you are only treating the associated symptoms e.g. sleepiness.
**Alcohol is frequently paired with psychostimulant use. Some people mixed the two in their drinks e.g. energy drinks, caffeine. What are the first two reasons for why this is not a good idea? 1) CARDIOVASCULAR RISK cos CNS depressants slow down HR but psychostimulants increase HR 2) CNS depression to the point of unconsiousness or death-the psychostimulant prevents you from experiencing this sleepy/coma feeling whch is norm. a safety mechanism
**Alcohol is frequently paired with psychostimulant use. Some people mixed the two in their drinks e.g. energy drinks, caffeine. What are the third reason for why this is not a good idea? 3) Blood Alcohol poisoning as you drink past the point your body would normally stop and pass out because your body doesn't experience these safety mechanisms of passing out due to the psychostimulant.
Created by: alice476