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Ch. 21, 22, 23 Vocab

Agricultural revolution. The change from nomadic hunting and gathering to farming that took place about 8000 B.C.
Civilization. An advanced culture.
Monotheism. The belief in one God.
Protectorate. An area that has its own government but is controlled by an outside power.
Chaparral. A type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates; small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub.
Poaching. Illegal hunting.
Mosque. An Islamic place of religious worship.
Muezzin. In Islam, a crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times each day from a minaret.
Minaret. A tall slender tower attached to a mosque.
Desalination plant. The place where salt is removed from seawater so that it later can be used for drinking and irrigation.
Nomad. A person who travels from place to place.
Trade deficit. The situation in which a country imports more than it exports.
Trade surplus. The situation in which a country exports more than it imports.
Autonomy. Independence.
Genocide. The systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people.
Nationalism. Pride in one's nation; the desire of a cultural group to rule themselves as a separate nation.
Chernozem. A rich topsoil found in the Russian steppes and other mid-latitude grasslands.
Fundamentalism. A set of religious beliefs based on a strict interpretation of a sacred text.
Yurt. A round tent made of a wooden framework and covered with felt or skins.
Desertification. The transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention.
Mandate. A commission from the League of Nations authorizing a nation to govern a territory.
Zionist. A member of the movement known as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state.
Self-determination. The right of a people to decide their own political future.
Drip irrigation. A process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes, thus preserving precious water resources in dry areas.
Potash. A mineral used in explosives and fertilizer.
Fertile Crescent. A region in the Middle East where farming and the first civilizations developed.
Militia. A citizen army.
Anarchy. Political disorder and violence; lawlessness.
Embargo. A severe restriction of trade with other countries.
Ifrastructure. The basic support facilities of a community or country, such as roads and bridges, power plants, and schools.
Falaj system. In the Arabian Peninsula, an ancient system of underground and surface canals.
Secular. Worldly, not relating to religion.
Shah. The title of the former ruler of Iran.
Ayatollah. A religious leader among the Shiite Muslims.
Created by: jackfulcher