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Medsurg 2


upper and lower tract consists of? upper - ureters * kidneys; lower - bladder & urethra
acute glomerulonephritis causes (5) poor appetite, blood in urine, low urine output, headache/fever/malaise, fluid overload - CHF/pulmonary edema
acute glomerulonephritis Dx urine appears dark/smoky w/ blood, elevation in BUN and creatinine levels, biopsy needs of kidneys, loss of RBC & protein in urine, periorbital edema; mostly occurs in children and young adults
acute glomerulonephritis NI (4) monitor bp, I&O, educate regarding bedrest, check labs
chronic glomerulonephritis def slowly progressive disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes irreversible damage to the kidney nephrons; autoimmune; 40% of ppl on diaylsis have it; kidneys shrink; nephrons loose ability to filter waste; irreversible
chronic glomerulonephritis s/sx (4) facial and body edema d/t fluid retention; urine becomes pale and dilute; mental changes d/t waste in blood; anasarca (total body edema)
obstructive disorders (3) urolithiasis, kidney stones, ureter stones
obstructive disorders s/sx (5) N/V, flank pain, hematuria, dysuria, increase in frequency
at what percentage does nephrons fail? 90%
CRF etiology associated w/ intrarenal conditions or a complication of a systemic disease; kidneys are so damaged they dont remove protein by-products, electrolytes from blood and dont maintain acid-base balance
Renal failure s/sx of both increase in bp d/t fluid retention, weight gain, decreased urine output, facial edema, dry mouth, pruitis, breath/body smell like urine, seizures, muscle spasms, bleeding ulcers
3 categories of renal failure pre-renal, intrarenal, post-renal
ARF cause obstruction of BF to nephrons or intra-renal conditions that destroy nephrons
4 phases in ARF intiation: decrease BF; oliguric: excretion of >30cc/hr w/in 48 hrs of onset - can last 10-14 days; diuretic: if nephrons recover diuresis begins - h20 excretees but wastes & electrolytes excretion is still impaired; recovery: can take 1-2 yr if at all
3 stages of CRF reduced renal reserve: usually w/ sx * 40-75% loss; renal insuffiency: 75-90% loss; ESRD: <10% remaining fx
ESRD dialysis or kidney transplant can maintain life; skin becomes excretory organ for substances the kidney usually clears from the body; a precipitate (uremic frost) forms on the skin; electrolyte imbalance occurs; osteodystrophy
enuresis def involuntary voiding during sleep
oliguria amt less than 400 ml/day
anuria amt less than 50 ml/day
cystogram evaluates abnormalities in bladder structure & filling through the instillation of contrast dye and radiography
uroflowmetry evaluates bladder and sphincter function
cystometrogram evaluates bladder tone and capacity
a patient with a neurogenic bladder may not feel the urgency to void until ____ml of urine are in the bladder. what is a neurogenic bladder? 500ml; neurogenic is the sensation to void
the specific gravity of urine should be: 1.003-1.029
There should be no what in urine? (4) ketones, protein, WBCs, glucose
to prevent bacterial growth or decomposition the should do what? refrigerate urine
normal BUN 7-18ml/dl
normal creatintine in males/females males - .7-1.3mg/dl; females - .6-1.1mg/dl
pyelonephritis bacterial infection of kidney; can be acute or chronic; if treatment is not successful, and the infection returns its classified as chronic d/t bacteria backing up in kidney
what is the most common form of bacteria responsible for pyelonephritis E.Coli
Pyuria combo of bacteria and leukocytes in urine
polycystic kidney disease error in fetal develpoment
ureteral stricture rare; caused by scar tissue to accumulate in the ureter.
Tumors of the kidney are almost always _______ cancerous
cystostomy is also known as? clean intermittent catherization (CIC)
What are the crede's maneuver and Valsalva maneuvers? manual voiding or abnormal strain
Length of urthera in female and males females - 4cm; males 8inches or 20cm
interstitial cystitis def chronic inflammation of bladder mucosa
Created by: breinard