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Exam #4 - Genitourinary

Name four typical tests used to assess urinary function Urinalysis, Urine culture, KUB, ultrasound
What is being looked for with a voiding cystourethrogram that involves the use of contrast medium injected into the bladder? Masses
Described as an acute inflammatory disease caused by bacteria Pyelonephritis
The signs/symptoms of this inflammatory disease include N/V, anorexia, high fever and malaise (body malaise) Pyelonephritis
The treatment of pyelonephritis involves the administration of what type of medication? Antibiotics
Described as bilateral inflammatory changes in glomeruli generally following a streptococcal infection Acute glomerulonephritis
The signs/symptoms of this bilateral inflammatory disease include cola-colored urine, oliguria, edema of the face that can become more severe to cause weight gain, hypertension and headache Acute glomerulonephritis
It is very important to monitor this vital sign when dealing with acute glomerulonephritis Blood pressure
What is the drug of choice to treat the water retention issues associated with acute glomerulonephritis? Furosemide (Lasix)
Name three antihypertensive medications that are used in the treatment of acute glomerulonephritis ACEIs, beta-blockers, CCBs
What is the most helpful indicator of fluid balance in kids? Daily weights
An important nursing consideration when dealing with acute glomerulonephritis is to monitor for altered LOC; what might an altered LOC indicate? Increasing intracranial pressure
A clinical state characterized by increased permeability of the glomerular membrane to plasma proteins Nephrotic syndrome
What age group is most often inflicted with nephrotic syndrome? Preschooler age
Which is more serious: acute glomerulonephritis or nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome
What is the most common form of nephrotic syndrome? Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (also known as primary nephrotic syndrome)
Described by the process of renal glomerural damage --> proteinuria --> hypoproteinemia --> decreased oncotic pressure --> edema and hypovolemia Nephrotic syndrome
Described by the process of proliferation and infiltration of glomerulus by bacteria --> glomerular trapping of circulating bacteria --> thickening of glomerular filtration membrane --> scarring and loss of filtering surface --> renal failure Pyelonephritis
Described by the process of proliferation and infiltration of glomerulus by leukocytes --> glomerular trapping of circulating immune complexes --> thickening of glomerular filtration membrane --> scarring and loss of filtering surface --> renal failure Acute glomerulonephritis
What causes proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome? Because of leakage of protein into the urine which leads to hypoproteinemia which leads to hypovolemia
What is usually the first symptoms of nephrotic syndrome? Edema
Edema, proteinuria, straie of the skin, weight gain, vomiting and diarrhea are signs/symptoms of what kidney disease? Nephrotic syndrome
One of the goals of treatment for nephrotic syndrome is to prevent infection. Why is infection a concern? Low protein levels leave one at risk for infection
Name two types of medications that are used to treat nephrotic syndrome Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents
What is the corticosteroid of choice used to treat nephrotic syndrome? Prednisone
This medication used to treat nephrotic syndrome decreases inflammation in the structures and decreases the loss of protein Prednisone
Name an immunosuppressive agent used to treat nephrotic syndrome Cytoxan
This kidney disease requires frequent position changes due to the edema (to prevent skin breakdown) Nephrotic syndrome
What is the preferred diet for a child suffering from nephrotic syndrome? High calorie, high protein, low salt
Described as an obstructive disorder where urinary stasis can result and an infection can ensue Hydronephrosis
Described by the process of interference with the flow of urine --> back up of urine into kidney pelvis, causes distention of renal pelvis --> urinary stasis --> destruction of glomeruli or infection --> decrease filtration --> renal failure Hydronephrosis
Hematuria, polyuria, and pain are the signs/symptoms of this kidney disease Hydronephrosis
Described as bacteruia with or without signs or symptoms of inflammation in the bladder or kidneys Urinary tract infection
E. coli is a common causative agent for this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Obstruction, reflux, poor perineal hygiene and being female are contributory causes to development of this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Enuresis, fever, vomiting, urinary frequency, urgency, dysuria, abdominal pain and fouls-smelling urine are signs/symptoms of this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Nonspecific GI symptoms, irritability, diarrhea and vomiting are signs/symptoms for a child under the age of 2 for this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Urine culture and sensitivity as well as antibiotic therapy are treatments for this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Voiding frequently, proper hygiene, no long tub baths or bubble baths, and drinking adequate amounts of fluid are preventative measures for development of this kidney disease Urinary tract infection
Described by urethral opening below the glans penis or along the ventral surface Hypospadias
This defect of the genitourinary tract is associated with a fibrous band of tissue called a chordee Hypospadias
Described as failure of one/both testes to descend Cryptorchidism
When is surgery typically performed for a child with cryptorchidism? Between 1 and 2 years of age
How is a retractable testes distinguished from an undescended testes? One that is able to be milked down is a retractable testes and one that needs to be surgically repaired is an undescended testes
This genioturinary defect puts the patient at greater risk for infertility and testicular cancer later in life Cryptorchidism
Described as a loop of bowel herniates into the scrotum Inguinal herinia
80% of all hernias are of this type Inguinal hernia
What is a reducible inguinal hernia? One that can be pushed back in
Why does even a reducible hernia need to be surgically repaired? The herniated loop of bowel can become obstructed and then it can rupture
Described as accumulation of fluid in inguinal canal or scrotum Hydrocele
What is a noncommunicating hydrocele? One where the fluid reabsorbs; treatment not needed
What is a communicating hydrocele? One where the fluid keeps accumulating
What differentiates a hydrocele from an inguinal hernia? A hydrocele is not reducible and an inguinal hernia is reducible
At what age is the communicating type of hydrocele repaired? At 1 year of age
Described as malignant, undifferentiated cells arising in the kidney Wilms tumor; nephroblastoma
What type of tumor is Wilms tumor? An encapsulated tumor
In which kidney is Wilms tumor most commonly found? The left kidney
Is Wilms tumor more common in males or females? Males
At what age is Wilms tumor mostly diagnosed? < 5 years of age
The tell-tale sign for this kidney tumor is abdominal swelling or mass Wilms tumor
If the adrenal gland on the kidney is involved with Wilms tumor, then this clinical manifestation can result Hypertension
Albeit it's rare, metastasis to this organ can occur with Wilms tumor Lung
Surgical removal of the tumor, kidney and possibly the adrenal gland, as well as chemotherapy and radiation are the treatment modalities for this kidney defect Wilms tumor
This preoperative nursing assessment is a BIG no-no in regards to Wilms tumor Palpating the abdomen
Assessing the abdomen by listening for bowel sounds, and observing for abdominal distention, vomiting and pain are part of the postoperative nursing care for this kidney defect Wilms tumor
Monitoring vital signs preoperatively for a Wilms tumor surgical procedure is especially important for children with this issue Hypertension
Created by: ssbourbon
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