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Nur-458

Quiz - Hypotension and Shock

TermDefinition
What is orthostatic hypotension? Sudden peripheral vasodilation without rise in cardiac output
How is orthostatic hypotension defined? Systolic drops > 10-15 mm Hg; or diastolic drops > 5-10 mm Hg
How is shock defined? All shock is a result of inadequate tissue perfusion
What occurs in the initial stage of shock? Inadequate oxygen delivery initiates early cellular changes; not clinically evident
What occurs in the compensatory stage of shock? Decreased cardiac output triggers neural, hormonal, and chemical mechanisms to compensate for lack of tissue perfusion; clinical indicators are evident
What changes to vital signs occur during compensatory shock? HR goes up, BP changes some, RR goes up, anaerobic responses in cells; SaO2 dropping some; skin is cooler, paler and diaphoretic
What occurs in the progressive stage of shock? Compensatory mechanisms begin to fail and no longer maintain adequate perfusion
What occurs in the refractory stage of shock? Shock state is so severe and prolonged that death from MODS is imminent
What are the four classifications of shock? Hypovolemic, Neurogenic, Distributive, Obstructive
What are the three classifications of distributive shock? Neurogenic, Sepsis, Anaphylactic
What is the descriptive characteristic of distributive shock? Massive vasodilation
What is involved in the sympathetic response to physiological shock? SNS is stimulated and norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction and epinephrine causes increased heart rate and contractility
What is involved in the fluid shift response to physiological shock? Increased pressure in the vasculature and shifts into second spacing
What is involved in the cardiac response to physiological shock? Increased heart rate and contractility; will move from compensatory into progressive if it isn't caught at this point
Created by: ssbourbon
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