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Chapter 19

Stress Total force acting on crustal rocks per unit area.
Strain Deformation of materials in response to stress.
Elastic deformation Is caused when a material is compressed, bent, or stretched.
Plastic deformation When stress builds up past a certain point, called the elastic limit, rock undergo.
Fault Is any fracture of system of fractures along which Earth moves.
Seismic waves Vibrations of the ground produced during an earthquake.
Primary waves Squeeze and push rocks in the direction along which the waves are traveling.
Secondary waves They are slower than P-waves, so they are the second set of waves to be felt.
Focus Is usually several kilometers below Earths surface.
Epicenter Point on Earths surface directly above focus.
Seismometers Consist of a rotating drum covered with a sheet of paper, a pen or other such recording tool, and a mass, such as pendulum.
Seismogram Record produced by a seismometer.
Richter scale Devised by a geologist named Charles Richter, is a numerical rating system that measures the energy of the largest seismic waves.
Magnitude Produced during a earthquake.
Amplitude The largest seismic wave.
Moment magnitude scale Is a rating scale that measures the energy released by a earthquake, taking into account the size.
Modified Mercalli scale Which rates the type of damage they cause.
Soil liquefaction Vibrations can cause the ground to behave like a liquid in a phenomenon.
Tsunami A large ocean wave generated by vertical motions of the sea floor during an Earth quake.
Seismic gaps Are sections located along faults that are known to be active, but which have not experienced significant earthquakes for a long time.
Created by: BriannaBrooks