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Adult Health Nursing

ch 17 oncology MEL

Alopecia Loss of hair resulting from destruction of hair follicles
Autologous Something that has its origin within an individual especially a factor present in tissues or fluids
Benign Not recurring or progressive; opposite of malignant
Cachexia General ill health and malnutrition marked by weakness and emaciation usually associated with serious disease such as cancer
Carcinogen Substance known to increase the risk of development of cancer
Carcinogenesis Various factors that are possible origins of cancer
Carcinoma The term used for a malignant tumor composed of epithelial cells; it displays a tendency to metastasize
Differentiated Describes a tumor that is most like the parent tissue
Immunosurveillance The immune system's recognition and destruction of newly developed abnormal cells
Leukopenia abnormal decrease in the number of WBC to fewer than 5000 cells/MM 3 due to depression of the bone marrow
Malignant Growing worse, resisting treatment; said of cancerous growths. tending or threatening to reduce death; harmful
Metastasize The process by which tumor cells are spread to distant parts of the body
Neoplasm Uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells
Oncology The sum of knowledge regarding tumors the branch of medicine that deals with the study of tumors
Palliative Designed to relieve pain and distress and to control the signs and symptoms of disease not designed to produce a cure
Papanicolaou's Test (PAPsmear) A simple smear method of examining stained exfoliative cells used most commonly to detect cancers of the cervix
Sarcoma Malignant tumor of connective tissues such as muscle or bone usually presents as a painless swelling
Stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth due to deconstruction abnormal cells of the oral cavity that may result from infection infection by bacteria, viruses, or fungi from exposure to certain chemicals or drugs, vitamin deficiency, or systemic inflammatory disease
Thrombocytopenia An abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced to fewer than 100,000/MM 3
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) Oncologic emergency that occurs with rapid lysis of malignant cells most frequently associated with chemotherapy treatment
Lung cancer Leading cause of cancer related death in both men and women
incisional biopsy Removal of a portion of tissue for examination
excisional biopsy Is the removal of the complete lesion, with little or no margin of surrounding normal tissue removed
Needle aspiration biopsy The aspiration of fluid or tissue by means of needle
endoscope To directly visualize an internal structure through a body cavity or a small incision
TNM classification system T- tumor size N-degree of regional spread to the lymph nodes M- metastasis
CT computed tomography Scan uses radiographs and computed scanning system to record images of specific structures at different angles
Radioisotope Studies require the injection or ingestion of a radioactive substance
MRI magnetic resonance imaging Radiofrequency energy waves produce signals that are processed by computer and displayed no metal, jewelry, pacemaker, rods
PET positive emission tomography Radioactive chemical is given to patient useful to visualize fast-growing tumors and to specify their anatomical location
Alkaline phosphatase blood levels Elevated if there is metastasis in the bone or liver
Serum calcitonin levels Is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland level is increased in the blood of people who have cancer of the thyroid
Guaiac test Commonly used to detect OCCULT hidden blood in stools
Radiation therapy Can be used to cure or control cancer that has spread to local lymph nodes to treat tumors that cannot be removed
External radiation therapy The specific area on the body is marked to indicate the port at which external radiation will be direct; do not wash off; do not use ointments lotions or powder; stay out of direct sunlight
Internal radiation therapy radioactive implant is the insertion of a sealed radioactive material temporarily or permanently into hollow cavities, within body tissues, or on the body's surface uterus and vagina are natural receptacles for placement
Internal radiation therapy 2 Unsealed internal radiation is administered intravenously or orally that it is distributed throughout the patient's body
Chemotherapy drugs are used to reduce the size or slow the growth of metastatic cancer
Leukopenia - hematopoietic system Reduction in the number of circulating WBCs due to depression of the bone marrow common problem for patients receiving chemotherapy
Neutropenia Lack of neutrophils, the type of WBCs most often suppressed in the differential WBC count normal value 60% to 70% ; the body's 1st line of defense collapses opening the way for pneumonia septicemia or other overwhelming infections
Assessing the mouth Stomatitis inflammation of oral mucosa, severe swallowing problems and systemic infections, lesions, ulcers, or white plaque soft toothbrush no over-the-counter mouthwash
Assessing the skin A rash or eruption may indicate that the patient has an infection or is predisposed to 1, shave with electric razor bacteria may flourish in skin folds such as groin and axillae
Assessing pulmonary function Change in lung sounds, respiratory rate and rhythm, breathing effort perform deep breathing and coughing exercises and use of incentives spirometry
Assessing urinary and bowel function Neutropenic patient, assessment decreased urinary output, changes in the urine odor or color, hematuria, or glycosuria reduce the risk of urinary tract infection avoid bladder catheterization
Medical management Neutropenia CSF - colony stimulating factors, actually prevent or manage neutropenia G-CSF- filgrastim, pegfilgrstim GM-CSF= granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factors
Anemia Reduction of the number of circulating RBCs, hemoglobin, volume of packed RBCs(hematocrit) due to depression of the bone marrow
Thrombocytopenia Reduction in the number of circulating platelets due to depression of the bone marrow use soft tb; no rectal meds, temps or enemas; use electric shaver; avoid blowing nose forcefully a.k.a. picking; avoid trauma, falls, bumps, cuts, sports; avoid aspirin
Allogenic marrow from a donor
Syngenic donor from identical twin
Unrelated donation from a non-relative
Autologous pts own , treated with chemo/radiation then re-infused
obtaining donor marrow anterior crest & sternum iliac crest; 600-2500 ml needed for transplant given through IV transfusion bag, maybe be frozen up to 3 yrs
Xerostomia Decreased salivation
Created by: diamondgirljaz