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Adult health nursing

Ch 2 surgical pt MEL

Anesthesia Needs the absence of feeling (pain), an meaning without meaning awareness of feeling, anesthesia is divided into three categories: Gen., regional, and local.
ablation Amputation or exclusion of any body part or removal of growth or harmful substance
atelectasis Abnormal condition characterized by the collapse of one tissues, or pneumonia may be developing
Cachexia Ill health, malnutrition, and wasting as a result of chronic disease
Catabolism Tissue breakdown, especially after severe trauma or crush injuries
Conscience sedation Is administration of drugs that depress the central nervous system or provide analgesia to relieve anxiety or provide amnesia during surgical diagnostic procedures
dehiscence The separation of a surgical incision or rupture of a wound closure
Drainage The removal of fluids from a body cavity, wound, or other source of discharge by one or more methods
Embolus A foreign object, quantity of air or gas, that circulates in the blood stream until it becomes lodged in a blood vessel
Evisceration Protrusion of an internal organ through a disrupted wound or surgical incision
extubate To remove an endotracheal tube from an airway
Exudate Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly excluded or discharged from body cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in the cell membrane
Infantile spirometry Use the bedside at regular intervals to encourage a patient to breathe deeply
Incisions Surgical cut produced by sharp instrument to create an opening into an organ or space in the body
Infarct Localized area of necrosis in tissue, a vessel, or an organ resulting from tissue anoxia; caused by an interruption in the blood supply to area
Informed consent Permission obtained from the patient to perform a specific test or procedure
Intraoperative Pertaining to a period of time during surgical procedure
Palliative Designed to relieve pain and distress and to control the signs and symptoms of disease; not designed to produce a cure
Paralytic ileus Intestinal obstruction, absence of intestinal peristalsis and bowel sounds may occur after abdominal surgery
Perioperative Entire surgical inpatient. Occurring immediately before, during, and immediately after surgery
Postoperative Pertaining to the period of time after surgery
Preoperative Pertaining to a period of time before surgery
prosthesis Artificial replacement for missing body part
singultus hiccup
Surgery Branch of medicine concerned with diseases and trauma requiring operative procedures
Surgical asepsis A group of techniques that destroy all microorganisms and their spores; a.k.a. sterile technique
Thrombus Of or pertaining to a clot
Intracranial Coughing increases intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to spinal fluid leak
EYE Coughing increases ICP, which then increases intraocular pressure, causing pressure on suture line
Ear Mouth must be kept open if coughing occurs to prevent pressure back up through Eustachian tube to middle ear, causing pressure on suture line
Nose Mouth must be kept open if coughing occurs to prevent dislodgement of a clot with subsequent bleeding
Throat Vigorous coughing may dislodge a clot with subsequent bleeding
Spinal Coughing increases spinal canal pressure
Anastomosis Surgical joining of 2 ducts or blood vessels to allow flow from one to another; to bypass an area(joins stomach and duodenum)
Ectomy Surgical removal
Lysis Destruction or dissolution of(lysis of adhesions, removal of adhesions)
Orrhaphy Surgical repair(herniorrhaphy, repair of a hernia)
oscopy Direct visualization by a scope (cystoscopy, direct visualization of the urinary tract by means of a cystoscope
ostomy Opening made to allow the passage of drainage (ileostomy, formation of in opening of the ileum onto the surface of the abdomen for the passage of feces)
OTOMY Opening into (thoracotomy, surgical opening into the thoracic cavity)
PEXY Fixation of(cecopexy, fixation or suspension of the cecum to correct its excessive mobility)
PLASTY Plastic surgery (mammoplasty, reshaping of the breast to reduce, lift, reconstruct)
Major surgery Involves extensive reconstruction or alteration in body parts; poses great risks to well-being(coronary artery bypass, colon resection, gastric resection)
Minor surgery Involves minimal alteration in body parts; often designed to correct deformities; involves minimal risk(cataract extraction, skin graft, tooth extraction)
Elective surgery Performed on basis of patients choice(bunion ectomy, plastic surgery)
Urgent surgery Necessary for patients health(excision of cancerous tumor, removal of gallbladder for stones, vascular repair for obstructed artery) coronary artery bypass
Emergency surgery Must be done immediately to save a life or preserve function of a body part
Diagnostic surgery Surgical exploration that allows physician to confirm diagnosis; may involve removal of tissue for further diagnostic testing
ABLATION SURGERY Excision or removal of a diseased body part(amputation, removal of appendix)
Palliative surgery Surgery for relief for reduction of intensity of disease symptoms; will not produce a cure(colostomy, debridement of necrotic tissue)
Reconstructive surgery Restoration of function or appearance to traumatized or malfunctioning tissue (scar revision, breast reconstruction)
Transplant surgery Replacement of malfunctioning organs(cornea, heart, joints, kidneys)
Constructive surgery Restoration of function loss or reduced as a result of congenital anomalies(repair of cleft pallet, closure of atrial septal defect in heart)
Benzodiazepine: Versed=Midazolam, Valium=Diazepam, Ativan=Lorazepam, Actions - decreases anxiety and produces sedation, induces amnesia; NI - monitor for respiratory depression, hypotension, drowsiness, lack of coordination, dry mouth; safety - rails up/bed low
Opioid analgesics Morphine=Morphine, Sublimaze=Fentanyl Citrate, Delotid=Marporadine, Actions - decreases anxiety, allows decreased anesthetics; NI- Narcan on hand in case, monitor for respiratory depression, nausea, vomiting, orthostatic hypertension, pruritus
H2 receptors antagonist Pepcid=Famotidine, Zantac=Ranitidine, Tagamet=Cimetidine, Actions - reduces gastric acid volume and concentration; NI- monitor for confusion and dizziness in older adults
Antimetics Reglan=Metoclopramide, Inapsine = Droperidol, Zofran=Ondansetron (5 HT3) Actions - enhances gastric emptying, PREVENTS postoperative nausea and vomiting, tranquilizer; NI- monitor for sedation extrapyramidal, reaction(involuntary movement, muscle tone change, abnormal posture), instruct patient to report difficulty breathing
Anticholinergic: a.k.a. parasympathetic speeds things up: Atropine Sulfate, Robinul=Glycopyrrolate Actions - reduces oral and respiratory secretions to decrease risk of aspiration, decreases vomiting and laryngospasms; NI- monitor for confusion, restlessness, and tachycardia(HR), prepare patient to expect dry mouth
Antibiotics: Ancef=Cefazolin, Claforan=Cefotaxime Sodium, Rocephin=Ceftriaxone Actions - minimizes risk of wound infection bactericidal as perioperative prophylaxis; NI- monitor signs and symptoms of superinfection, including abdominal pain, moderate to severe diarrhea, severe anal or genital pruritus, and severe mouth soreness
Adrenocortical steroid: Depo-Medrol-Solu-Medrol=Methylprednisolone Actions - decreases inflammation; NI - determine whether patient has diabetes mellitus, and anticipate further increase in antidiabetic drug regimen because of raised blood glucose level, determine whether patient as hypersensitivity to drug
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) Toradol=Ketorolac, Motrin, Naproxen Actions - reduces intensity of pain and inflammation; NI- Assess the duration, location, onset, and type of pain the patient is having, evaluate patient for therapeutic response
Anticoagulants - prevents platelets from forming: Lovenox=Enoxaparin Actions - prevents new clot formation or secondary embolic complications, produces anticoagulation; NI - bleeding precautions, tell the patient not to take aspirin or similar over-the-counter drugs, do not give IM, but give subQ
Heparin sodium NI-crosscheck heparin dose with another nurse before administering, assess patient gums for arrhythmia and gingival bleeding; scan for bruises or petechiae,use constant rate IV infusion pump, monitor the patient's partial thromboplastin time diligently
Coumadin= Warfarin sodium NI- Observe patient for evidence of hemorrhage such as abdominal and back pain decreased blood pressure, increased pulse rate, and severe headache, do not drink alcohol or make any drastic dietary changes, if they have black stool, bleeding- bloody cough
Thrombolytics Destroys clot, clot buster, dissolves clot, 4 hour window after stroke
Created by: diamondgirljaz