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Chapter 19 Vocab


Stress Forces per unit area that act on a material- compression,tension, and shear
Strain deformation of materials in response to stress
Elastic Deformation Causes materials to bend and stretch; proportional to stress, so if the stress is reduced or returns to zero the strain or deformation is reduced or disapears
plastic deformation Permanent deformation caused by strain when stress exceeds a certain value
Fault Fracture or system of fractures in earth's crust that occurs when stress is applied too quickly or stress is too great
Seismic waves The vibrations of the ground during an earthquake
Primary waves seismic wave that squeezes and pushes rocks in the same direction that the wave travels, know as a p-wave
Secondary waves Seismic wave that causes rock particles to move at right angles to the direction of the wave, known as an s-wave
Focus Point of the initial fault rupture where an earthquake originates that usually lies at least several kilometers beneath earth's surface
Epicenter Point on earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
Seismometers instrument used to measure horizontal or vertical motion during an earthquake
Seismogram Record produced by a seismometer that can provide individual tracking of each type of seismic wave
Richter Scale Numerical rating system used to measure the amount of energy released during an earthquake
Magnitude Measure of energy released during an earthquake, which can be described using richer scale
Amplitude The size of the seismic waves; an increase of 1 in the scale represents an increase in amplitude of a factor of 10
Moment Magnitude Scale Scale used to measure earthquake magnitude- taking into account the size of the fault rupture
Modified Mercalli scale Measures earthquakes intensity on a scale from 1 to 10
Soil Liquefaction Process associated with seismic vibrations that occur in areas of sand that is nearly saturated;resulting in the ground behaving like liquid
Tsunami Large powerful ocean wave generated by the vertical motions of the seafloor during an earthquake
Seismic Gaps place along an active fault that has not experienced an earthquake for a long time
Created by: Deonna2014
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