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Nur-341

Exam #4 - Substance Abuse Disorders

TermDefinition
What three ways do drugs increase neurotransmitter concentrations? Lock onto receptors, lock onto neuron or prevent reuptake
What neurotransmitters are involved in addiction? Dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate
What are the two types of substance related disorders in the DSM-V? Substance use disorders and substance induced disorders
What does it mean to have a dual diagnosis? Substance abuse and psychiatric disorder
What does CAGE stand for? Cut-down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener
What is AUDIT used for? A screening tool for alcohol use; a series of 10 questions scored 0-4; a score higher than 8 for men indicates a problem; a score higher than 7 indicates a problem for women
Name three CNS depressants? Alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazepines
What is the mechanism of action of alcohol? Sedative affect by increasing GABA and decreasing glutamate
When does alcohol withdrawal begin? Starts at 4-12 hours after last drink
What happens to vital signs with alcohol withdrawal? Everything increases: HR, RR, BP, temperature
What older medication is used to promote abstinence from alcohol? Disulfiram (Antabuse)
What opiate antagonist is used to promote abstinence from alcohol? Naltrexone (Revia, Vivitrol)
What medication diminishes craving for alcohol by blocking receptors? Trexone
What GABA agonist is used to promote abstinence from alcohol by exerting a calming, relaxing effect? Acamprosate (Campral)
What effect do barbiturates exert? Excessive drowsiness
Name two examples of barbiturates Seconal (secobarbital) and Phenobarbital
Which class of CNS depressants are long acting and less harmful in overdose? Benzodiazepines
Name four examples of benzodiazepines Lorazepam (Ativan), Alprazolam (Xanax), Diazepam (Valium), Clonazepam (Klonopin)
Name the antidote for benzodiazepine respiratory depression Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Name three drugs that are considered CNS stimulants. Amphetamines, cocaine, and caffeine
What mode of action do amphetamines have? Increase norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin
Name four examples of amphetamines Methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine, benzphetamine, ecstasy
What drug produces a high 12X that of sex? Amphetamines
What is the most commonly used drug in the world? Caffeine
Withdrawal from these two CNS stimulants includes intense cravings Amphetamines and cocaine
What is the mode of action of cocaine? Activates dopamine transmission in the limbic system
What can an overdose of opiates lead to? Death by respiratory depression
What is the antidote for an opiate overdose? Narcan
Withdrawal symptoms of this drug resembles the flu Opiates
What antihypertensive medication is used to promote withdrawal/abstinence from opiates? Clonidine (Catapres)
What controversial medication is used to promote withdrawal from opiates? Methadone (Dolophine)
What partial opioid antagonist is used to promote withdrawal/abstinence from opiates and is taken sublingually? Buprenorphine (Subutex, Suboxone)
What is the most common illicit drug in the U.S? Cannabis (Marijuana)
There is a high rate of use of this illicit drug in people who present with a first psychosis Marijuana
This class of drugs induces a psychotic state known as perceptual distortions Hallucinogens
Name three examples of hallucinogens LSD, Mescaline, PCP
Use of this hallucinogen can produce "bad trips" LSD
Use of this hallucinogen can lead to desensitization and person can be hurt and not have a sense of it PCP
This disorder describes intermittent flashbacks that occur for years post-use Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder
This drug acts as both a stimulant and a depressant Nicotine
This drug mimics acetylcholine in the brain Nicotine
This drug increases and prolongs the action of dopamine Nicotine
This smoking-cessation medication is begun 2 weeks before the person actually quits smoking Buproprion (Zyban) = Wellbutrin
This smoking-cessation medication is more effective than Zyban but has some serious psychiatric side effects Varenicline (Chantix)
A genetic mutation of this gene can leave some people with a tendency towards anxiety, anger, and low self-esteem DRD2 Gene
What does CIWA-Ar stand for? Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Revised
How is the CIWA-Ar used? 10 withdrawal symptoms are rated on a scale of 0-7; if the total score is > 10, then benzodiazepines are needed for withdrawal (calms and prevents seizures)
What does IOP stand for? Intensive Outpatient Program
At what stage of the transtheoretical model of change is a person ready to accept suggestions and strategies to change their drug use? Preparation stage
What is the most common treatment for addiction? Self-help groups
Created by: ssbourbon