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chapter 8

Indian music. African and Celtic music

TermDefinition
Classical Indian music Art music,Hindustani music/Karnatic music,Rasa, sitar, tabla. tambura, drone, raga, tala
Popular Indian music Cassette culture and films
Art music- Indian Classical Music •Music that has been widely researched and recorded • music is based on ancient traditions and has a history of great artists
Art music- Indian Classical Music •The music is based on a long-standing theoretical system
Art music- Indian Classical Music •The music is highly developed, improvisatory, and melodic
Art music- Indian Classical Music •Harmony is not valued as a part of the music
Art music- Indian Classical Music music is based on ancient traditions and has a history of great artists
Hindustani music/Karnatic music •Since the thirteenth century, musical styles have been studied and identified according to the practices of the north (Hindustani) and the south (Karnatic)
Hindustani music/Karnatic music •Note that there are different styles of music and different instrumental preferences within each region
Hindustani music North Indian classical music
Karnatic music South Indian classical music
Rasa •An aesthetic basis that underlies much of the art music of India “Rasa is not just the music but the power of the music to convey thoughts, feelings, moods, and images.” ~ p. 161
Sitar •A plucked stringed instrument •The lead instrumentalist in Hindustani music typically plays a sitar
Tabla •A percussion instrument •The tabla player provides rhythm and energy
Tambura •A stringed instrument •The instrument that is use for the drone
Drone •An instrument whose purpose is to play a low sustained pitch (a constantly repeated pitch) •This will produce a trance-like quality
Raga •The established melodic pattern of Indian art music •A sequence of ascending and descending pitches (similar to a scale, but more complex)
Raga •It is easier to think of Raga as a melodic shape •Specific ornaments can make a raga immediately recognizable
Tala •The established rhythmic pattern of Indian art music •The basic means of organizing the rhythm or duration
Tala •The tala dictates to the performer the complete pattern of cycle of counts, as well as the subdivision
Tala •The tabla player (drummer) is expected to improvise based on these cycles and subdivisions, and to pull against the tala (tension) and then later return to the pattern (resolution)
Indian classical music Pre-composed songs are generally learned from memory. music does exist, it is not as valued in India
“Cassette culture”- Indian popular music •Historically, much of India’s popular music was distributed through this method. •An enormous amount of piracy occurred, and therefore it was easy for people to access this music, even in rural areas
Films Indian popular music •Most of India’s films could be described as musicals •The popularity of the music often determines the success of a film •Most of the stars (actors) do not sing
Instrumental Music/Vocal Music- Africa (Instrumental music is just as important as vocal music.)
Instruments (specific to this region)=Africa Idiophones ,Membranophones,Chordophones and Aerophones
Musical characteristics of African music Rhythm,Melody/Texture,Ensembles
Idiophones - Africa •Instruments whose basic material of construction is the sound-producing agent •rattles, bells, gongs, shells, log drums, xylophones, and mbiras
Membranophones= Africa •Drums with heads of stretched skin •Drums are played with sticks or hands •Master drums are used to lead ensembles and signal important events
Chordophones- Africa •Strings, harps, fiddles •Most African stringed instruments are plucked (not bowed)
Aerophones- Africa •Wind instruments •Natural horns, trumpets, flutes and reed instruments
Rhythm- Africa •Rhythm is the heart of African music, and is the focus of the music before melody and harmony •Traditional African music is performed by drum ensembles (often with singing)
Rhythm- Africa •The complex rhythms are produced by drums, other percussion instruments, strings, winds, and also voices •It is rare to find traditional African music that is smooth or connected
Melody/Texture- Africa •Melodies (usually sung) are simple and have a limited range •Harmony is unimportant in traditional African music, leading to more simple texture
Melody/Texture- Africa •It is important to note, however, that melody and harmony have become more common in the popular and folk music genres due to the influence of Western music
Ensembles- Africa •Performing groups can be organized, or spontaneous •Drum ensembles and various other ensembles are very common
Popular Music- Africa Western influence •American jazz, rock, and soul •African-Latin music from the Caribbean •The combination of these styles with traditional African music has created new styles
Highlife/Juju/Afro-beat the most popular styles
Celtic Music 1)What is the true definition of Celtic Music
Celtic Music how does it relate to Irish Music
Celtic Music 2)How did Celtic Music become so popular in recent decades
Celtic Music 3)What are the common instruments (p.184) used in Celtic Music
Celtic Music 4)Who are the significant artists/bands discussed on pp.184-186
Created by: droe