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Unique to DUODENUM this glands secrete alkaline mucus Brunner´s glands (submucosa)
Lymphoid aggregates specific to the ILEUM Peyer´s patches
Mucormicosis is seen mostly in Diabetic ketoacidotics and leukemic patients (immunocompromised)
Irregular, broad, nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles (90º) Mucor
Rhinocerebral, frontal lobe abscesses, headache, facial pain, blacknecrotic eschar on face Mucormicosis
Treatment for mucormicosis Amphotericin B
Blotting procedures Southern: DNA Northern: RNA Western: Protein Southwestern: DNA-binding protein
Process where the eons of a gene are reconnected in multiple ways during post-translational processing, creating different mRNA sequences resulting in diverse protein isoforms Alternative splicing
Process in eukaryotes that greatly increases biodiversity of proteins encoded by the genome Alternative splicing
Procedure used to detect specific mRNA sequences in a sample to assess for gene expression Northern blot
Treatment for Wilson´s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) Penicillamine (chelation agent)
Used to treat lead poisoning Dimercaprol + EDTA
Iron-chelating agent used to treat Hemochromatosis Deferoxamine
Mediates pain Bradykinin
Anti-inflammatory cytokines (inhibit inflammation) TGF-beta, IL-10
Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-4. IL-5, IL-12
Treatment of acetaminophen toxicity N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)
Cluster C personality disorders have a genetic association to Anxiety disorders
Cluster C personality disorders 1) Avoidant 2)Obsessive-compulsive 3)Dependent
Hypersensitive to rejection, socially inhibited, timid, feelings of inadequacy, desires relationships with others (vs. Schizoid) Avoidant (Cluster C personality disorder)
Instructions given by a patient in anticipation of the need for a medical decision Advance directives
Its BEST discussed during outpatient visits by 1º care provider. MUST be readdressed during admission process so entire medical staff can adhere to patients stablished wishes Advance directives
Murmur peaks intensity after closure of incompetent aortic valve, at the point when pressure gradient between aorta and left ventricle is at´s it maximum Early diastolic murmur; Aortic Regurgitation
High pitched ¨blowing¨early diastolic descrecendo murmur best heard at left sternal border with patient sits up and leans forward (end of expiration) Aortic Regurgitation
Best heard at left sternal border with patient sits up and leans forward (end of expiration) Aortic Regurgitation
Hypoxia caused by COPD can stimulate cortical cells of the kidney to produce Erythropoietin
Relative risk reduction (RRR) RRR=(AR control-AR treatment)/AR control
Proportion of risk reduction attributable to the intervention as compared to a control Relative risk reduction (RRR); 1-RR
Acute lung transplant can have long term effect on Small airways (Bronchiolitis obliterans)
In methionine synthase deficiency (homocystinuria) which amino acid becomes ESSENTIAL Cysteine
Rb Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
White pupillary reflex (leukocoria) in children <5 years old Retinoblastoma
The Rb gene is a Tumor supressor (anti-oncogene)--> Inhibits E2F; blocks G1-->S phase
Methylmalonic acid is converted to succinyl-CoA by Isomerization
CREST Calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerodactyly and Telangectasia
Loss of sensation of 5th digit of the hand Ulnar (C8-T1) nerve lesion
Diagnosis of mucormycosis Mucosal biopsy
Irregular, broad, nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles; 90º Mucor
Gram +, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacilli Clostridia
Toxin prevents release of stimulatory ACh signals at neuromuscular junctions Botulinum toxin (exotoxin)
Botulinum toxin injections are used for Dystonias, facial wrinkles, relax LES in achalasia, muscle spasm, etc
Treatment of MRSA Vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid
MOA of daptomycin Depolarization of cellular membrane
Most common ectopic thyroid tissue site is the Tongue
Lingual thyroid is a Failure of migration
MEN 1 B 3 P´s: Pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas
2 most serious electrolyte imbalances caused by amphotericin B Hypokalemia, hypomagnasemia
P-glycoprotein also known as Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)
P-glycoprotein is a transmembrane protein that functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump
Is expressed by some cancer cells and is associated to decreased responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapeutic agents P-glycoprotein; Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)
MOA of carbamazepine Increase Na+ channel activation; decrease Na+ current in cortical neurons
1st line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia Carbamazepine
Common cause of increased creatine kinase levels due to hypothyroid myopathy. Sometimes can be the 1º manifestation Hypothyroidism
Common causes of INCREASED creatine kinase 1)Autoimmune (Polyomyositis/Dermatomyositis) 2)HMG CoA reductase inhibitors 3)Muscular dystrophies (Duchenne´s, etc)
Cystic cavity (syrinx) within spinal cord, most commonly at C8-T1 Syringomyelia
¨Cape-like¨bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper extremities Syringomyelia (destruction of anterior white commisure; 2nd order neuron)
Syringomyelia is commonly seen with Chiari I malformation
Most common cause of INTRINSIC renal failure Acute tubular necrosis
In acute tubular necrosis, DEATH most often occurs during INITIAL oliguric phase
Key finding in acute tubular necrosis Granular ¨muddy brown¨casts
Granular ¨muddy brown¨casts Acute tubular necrosis
1 stage of acute tubular necrosis 1)Inciting event
2 stage of acute tubular necrosis 2)Maintenance: oliguric, lasts 1-3 weeks, risk of HYPERkalemia, metabolic acidosis
3 stage of acute tubular necrosis 3)Recovery: polyuric; BUN+creatinine fall; risk of HYPOkalemia
Acute tubular necrosis can be caused by Ischemic (most common) or nephrotoxic injury
Acute tubular necrosis caused by Ischemia is 2º to Decreased renal blood flow
Are highly susceptible to injury caused by ischemia in acute tubular necrosis Proximal tubule+ Thick ascending limb
Is particularly susceptible to injury caused by nephrotoxic substances that result in acute tubular necrosis Proximal tubule
Hypertriglyceridemia >1000mg/dL Acute pancreatitis
Cause of death in Friedreich ataxia Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
The only bacterium with a polypeptide capsule (D-glutamate) Anthrax
Inhalation os spores from contaminated wool, sheeps, goat hair Woolsorter´s disease
Created by: heidy39



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