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Science Module 11

Apologia Exploring Creation Science Human Body Module 11

The body's superstructure is composed of three basic units. What are they? The skeleton, the muscles, and the skin.
How many separate bones are there in an adult's skeleton? 206
Why do children actually have more bones than adults While children mature, some of the separate bones in the body fuse together to become one.
How many different skeletal muscles does your body have? 640
What is the soft, gelatin like tissue that fills the cavities of the bones? bone marrow
What does the cardiac muscle do? Found are only in the heart, and it controls how the blood is pumped throughout your body.
What do the smooth muscles do? They control movements necessary for your body's internal organs and blood vessels to function.
What are the two functions of the skin? It protects your body by preventing certain substances from getting inside, and it helps sense the outside world and then sends messages about those sensations to the brain.
What happens when your skin goes through keratinization? The skin cells harden and form your hair, nails, and the outer layer of your skin.
During cancer treatment, a patient's bone marrow is replace with different bone marrow. Besides the bone marrow itself, what else would change in the patient's body during this process? The patient's blood would change as well.
Your skeleton is made up of... bones
Your bones are as strong as.... steel
Your bones are as light as ... aluminum
To this day, applied scientists cannot come up with any material... that is both as strong and light as bone.
Name the parts of a typical bone. periosteum, compact bone tissue, spongy bone tissue, medullary cavity,and yellow bone marrow
Name the parts of the outer layer of the bone. periosteum, bone cells, and blood vessels
I need to tell you what bones are made of. Bones consist of cells surrounded by a substance called ... the bone matrix
The matrix is composed of two things: collagen and minerals
What is collagen? A flexible, thread-like substance that belongs to a class of chemicals known as proteins.
The mineral in bones are.... Rigid, hard chemicals that contain calcium.
Collagen and minerals work together to make your bones ... both strong and flexible.
Along the length of a long bone's center runs the ... medullary cavity
What does the medullary cavity made of? It contains bone marrow and blood vessels.
The medullary cavity can be surrounded by two types of bone: spongy bone and compact bone
What is the main difference between sponge and compact bones? The compact bone tissue has is packed tightly together, while the sponge tissue has open spaces.
The compact and spongy bone tissue are both surrounded by a sheath of tissue called ... the periosteum
What is the periosteum? The layer containing blood vessels that supply nutrients to the bones.
The sum total of all bones in the body is called the ... endoskeleton
The vertebral column, which is often called the ... backbone
The human endoskeleton can be split into two major sections: the axial and the appendicular skeletons
The portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the head, neck, and trunk is called the.... Axial skeleton
"The arm” is split into two regions: the humerus and the forearm (radius and ulna)
What is cartilage? This a skeletal substance that is not as firm as bone. Instead, it is more flexible.
A very old person can easily break a bone simply by tripping and falling. What substance is lacking in an older person's bones? As a person gets older, the relative amount of collagen in his bones decreases, so it is more brittle and breaks easily.
Suppose you are holding two bones in your hand. They are roughly the same size and shape; however, the first bone is significantly heavier than the second. Which bone has more compact bone tissue? Compact bone tissue is much heavier than spongy bone tissue. Thus, the first bone has more compact bone tissue because it is heavier.
Organisms from kingdom Animalia with no backbone are called... invertebrates
A body covering, typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection is called an.... exoskeleton
Grasshoppers represent just one of the many kinds of animals with exoskeletons, which biologists call ... arthropods
An exoskeleton is generally made of ... chitin
What is chitin made of? A chemical has the useful property of being both tough and flexible.
Invertebrates are the members of kingdom ____ that do not have a backbone. animalia
Classify a worm: It is an animal, but it is too squishy to have an endoskeleton. Thus, it is an invertebrate.
Classify grass: It is a plant. Thus, it is neither an invertebrate nor a vertebrate
Classify yeast: It is a fungus. Thus, it is neither an invertebrate nor a vertebrate.
Classify a bass (fish): They have endoskeletons. Thus, a bass is a vertebrate.
Classify a clam: It has a nice, hard outer shell, but it has no endoskeleton. It is an invertebrate.
What are voluntary muscles? You can control these muscles by thinking about them.
hinge joints can be found at the elbow and the knee. They act like the hinges on a door, allowing up and down motion, but that is all.
ball and socket joints Have a ball-shaped head that fits into a bowl-shaped socket. This design allows for a wide range of motion.
saddle joint in between a hinge joint and a ball-and-socket joint. They are composed of two saddle-shaped bones that fit together.
washer joint it exists only in your backbone.
The bones in a joint are covered with ... articular cartilage
What keeps the ball in the socket? Well, the two bones that are jointed together are held together by strips of tissue called... ligaments
What muscles do you use when you tilt your head? sternocleidomastoid and posterior triangle muschles
If the cartilage of a joint is damaged, what bad thing can happen to the bones of the joint? Great pain and bone damage as the bones of the joint scrape together.
If the ligaments are damaged, what bad thing can happen? It would make it easy to dislocate the joint.
Suppose a man's triceps brachii muscle stops working properly. The triceps can never contract. It can only remain relaxed. Will the man be able to flex his forearm at the elbow? Will the man be able to straighten his arm? The person will be able to flex the forearm at the elbow but not extend it
What are involuntary movements? Movement you make, but do not do them by choice.
Smooth muscles are controlled by.... involuntary movements
The heart muscle is controlled by both the brain and a small patch of cells, called the ... sinoatrial node
Where is the sinoatrial node at? within the heart
Why is the sinoatrial node called the pacemaker? It sets the "pace" at which your heart beats.
The tendency of plants to grow so that they face the light is called ... phototropism
The tendency for a plant to sense which way is “up” and to grow that way is called... gravitropism
What are the skin's layers? epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
A close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits is called... Symbiosis
Why is it that people have such a wide range of skin color? skin has cells that make a chemical pigment called melanin. Melanin can darken or lighten the pigment of your skin.
If you have a lot of melanin in your skin, ... you will have darker skin
If you have a small amount of melanin in your skin, you will have lighter skin
What is it called when someone doesn't have any melanin in their skin? albinism
When a person gets burned enough that she must be hospitalized, the doctors and nurses know that certain problems are likely to occur because of the severe damage to her skin. Can you list at least two of these problems? Since the skin provides waterproofing, the person might have a problem with water loss, which can cause dehydration. Since the skin provides sensation, the person might have trouble with sensations like touch, and temperature awareness.
Does sunlight tend to increase or decrease the amount of melanin in your skin? Yes
If an organism has hair, gives birth to live babies, and feed their babies with their own milk, and have four chambers in their hearts, they are .... mammals
What are the groups within the Animalia Kingdom? mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods
Created by: grantham10