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Micro UWORLD

Micro

QuestionAnswer
HBV Hepadnavirus; dsDNA — template ±RNA — progeny double-stranded DNA.
The HBV genome is a Partially dsDNA circular,replication of this genome is accomplished through reverse transcriptase DNA polymerase, creates an intermediate= + ssRNA template. Progeny= dsDNA.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, and 31 are strongly associated with Anal and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HIV infection increases the prevalence of HPV infection and increases the risk of anal carcinoma in HIV positive homosexual males.
Anal or cervical mass in homosexual HIV (+) patient, associated with Squamous cell carcinoma; Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18, and 31
Is responsible for almost half of all UTIs in sexually active young women. S saprophyticus
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is unique because it is resistant to Novobiocin
Coagulase negative staphylococci, unique among these because it is resistant to novobiocin Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Rheumatic fever is a syndrome of fever arthritis, erythema marginatum, Sydenham chorea and myocarditis leading to valvular insufficiency of the mitral or aortic valves. It follows untreated with Group A Streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (S. pyogenes)
Rheumatic fever Group A Streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis (S. pyogenes)
Autoimmune reaction following untreated Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) pharyngitis. ANTIGENIC SIMILARITY between bacterial antigens and normal “self” antigens in heart and CNS are believed to cause formation of anti-self antibodies resulting in Rheumatic fever
Is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia thrombocytopenia and renal insufficiency. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is caused by Escherichia coil strain 0157:H7
Usual clinical picture associated with EHEC: hemorrhagic colitis + hemorrhagic diarrhea + severe abdominal cramping caused by its ability to secrete a toxin similar to that of Shiga toxin
Most cases of HUS associated with EHEC 0157:H7 have been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef
Custard, mayonnaise and processed or salted meats Preformed heat stable enterotoxin of Staphylococcus aureus
Fried rice ingestion Bacillus cereus
Raw oysters Vibrio Parahaemolyticus (voluminous watery diarrhea, like cholera), Vibrio vulnificus (sepsis with up to a 50% mortality), as well as other Vibrio infections.
Raw egg consumption, raw chicken,improper food handling is associated with Salmonella gastroenteritis
Canned beans or any other canned or jarred food can be contaminated with Clostridium botulinum
Fungal septate hyphae branching at acute (45ºC) angles in a V-shaped Aspergillus
Aspergillus can cause 1. Invasive aspergillosis 2. Aspergillomas 3. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).
Neutropenic patients are at risk for infection with fungus produces septate hyphae with V shaped branching. Aspergillus fumigatus
C. diphtheriae causes diphtheria, initially affects oropharynx. Organism spreads by respiratory droplets and causes disease via its AB exotoxin
C. diphtheriae AB exotoxin The B (think: binding): allows penetration of the A (think: active)into the cell, to inhibit ribosome function
Immunization with the diphtheria toxoid induces production of circulating lgG against Exotoxin B subunit, effectively preventing disease.
Motile gram- negative bacillus that is facultatively anaerobic and able to ferment both lactose and glucose. E. coli
It grows well on blood, MacConkey, and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates E. coli
Most common cause of neonatal meningitis in the United States Group B Streptococcus
Group B Streptococcus is the most common cause of neonatal meningitis in the United States, followed by E. coli
E. coli virulence factors 1. Fimbriae: cystitis, pyelonephritis 2. K-1 capsular antigen: pneumonia, neonatal meningits 3. LPS endotoxin: septic shock
Most herpes infections below the waist are caused by HSV-2 and occur due to reactivation of latent infection within the dorsal root ganglia
Recurrence of genital herpes can be suppressed or minimized with daily oral valacyclovir, acyclovir, or famciclovir.
The combination of new onset genital vesicular rash (painful) with a positive Tzanck smear in a previously asymptomatic patient is suggestive of genital herpes due to HSV- 2.
hair-like protein polymers that project from the surface of the cell and are involved in the attachment of the organism to mucosal surfaces. Pili
Sharing of antigenic sequences between microorganism-host cell, leading to autoimmune disease if host mounts immune response against the infectious epitope and that epitope has sufficient sequence homology with a host antigen. Antigenic mimicry
Each gonococcus possesses ability to modify its pills protein by the process of Antigenic variation
There are three main kinds of botulism: food-borne, wound and infant botulism
neurotoxin in food prevents release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction, thereby preventing muscular contraction. C. botulinum
Once coated with HBsAg, is able to penetrate the hepatocyte, survive within the cell, replicate its viral RNAI and translate its genome into protein. Hepatitis D (Delta) virus
only two hepatitis virus that are fecal-orally transmitted HAV and HEV
Hepatitis A virus can be inactivated with water chlorination bleach (1:100 dilution) formalin, ultraviolet irradiation or boiling to 85°C for one minute.
Most invasive strain of H. influenzae Capsular type B
Composed of cell wall polysaccharide conjugated with protein toxoid from either diphtheria or tetanus. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine
Aplastic crisis in sickle cell patients is usually secondary to infection with Parvovirus B19 (non-enveloped, ss DNA virus)
Spherules packed with endospores. This patient’s history is likely to reveal: Coccidioidomycosis: patients likely live in or have recently traveled to: Southwest Unites States (southern and central California, Arizona. New Mexico and western Texas), Northern Mexico, some regions of Central-South America.
Dimorphic fungus endemic to the southwestern U.S. It exists in the environment as a mold (with hyphae) that forms spores. These spores are inhaled and turn into spherules in the lungs. Coccidioides immitis
Thick-walled spherules packed with endospores. Coccidioides immitis
Toxins with superantigen activity Enterotoxins Exfoliative Toxins and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (TSST-i)
Treatment of an acute C. diphtheriae infection requires (in order of importance) administration of: 1) Diphtheria antitoxin, 2) Penicillin or erythromycin, 3) DPT vaccine
HI V-positive patients often experience reactivation of latent EBV infections with a resulting increased incidence of EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorders, including the aggressive non-Hodgkin’s diffuse B-cell lymphomas
Most common cause of Candida vaginitis Broad-spectrum antibiotics use
2nd most common cause of vaginitis Candida
Common triggers for Candida vaginitis include: 1) Antibiotic suppress normal bacterial flora, facilitating overgrowth. 2) COP alter vaginal pH. 3) Corticosteroid therapy. 4) Uncontrolled DM 5) Immunosuppression, including HIV.
Pruritus+ erythema of vulvar and vaginal mucosa+ “cottage-cheese”-like discharge. Vaginal pH= normal or slightly higher than normal (>4.5). Wet mount examination is diagnostic: it reveals budding yeast and pseudohyphae. Candida vaginitis
ONLY virus with a DNA genome Hepatitis B (enveloped, double-stranded DNA)
There is only one clinically significant viral family in which the members are both non-enveloped and contain single stranded DNA: Parvoviridae
Parvovirus B19 causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), aplastic crises in sickle cell anemia, and hydrops fetalis.
Created by: heidy39