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program music recounts a story; often given in an accompanying text (not vocal music); instrumental music
example of program music Symphonie Fantastique, Op. 14
Part Song SATB without accompaniment; song for more than one voice
example of Part Song Gartenlieder, Op. 3: No. 6, Im Wald by Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel
Piano Trio for piano, violin, & cello; 1st & 4th movements set in sonata form (combine traits from Baroque, classical, & Romantic models); 2nd movement-scherzo:subtle rhythmic tricks; 3rd movement-slow movement in ABA form & textures constantly change
example of Piano Trio Piano Trio in G Minor by Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann (1819-1896) stopped composing after Robert's death; concertized; promoted her husband's music; wrote several collections of Lieder; approached songs similar to her husbands; also wrote chamber music
example of a piece by Clara Schumann Piano Trio in G Minor
Clara Schumann's approach to music long piano preludes & postludes; similar figuration used throughout a song; voice & piano as equals
Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 written for Ferdinand David (friend & concert master of Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra); seamless 3-mvmt sequence w/o interruption; unique instrumentation; 3rd mvmt-begins w/ a slow 14-mm bridge, then a fast sonata-rondo in a light, playful style, ABACAB'A;
unique instrumentation of Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 1 flute, 1 oboe, 1 clarinet, 1 bassoon, 1 horn, 1 trumpet, timpani, & strings
composer of Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 Felix Mendelssohn
date Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 was written 1844
how is the Violin Concerto in E Minor, Op. 64 distinguishable violin and orchestra
Franz Schubert (1797-1828) wrote >600 songs for voice&piano; Schubertiades-network of S.'s friends meeting; contracted syphilis-terrible effects from medications, probably had mercury poisoning; met Beethoven on his deathbed-a torchbearer@funeral; used poems from 91 different poets
example of a piece by Franz Schubert Gretchen am Spinnrade
Robert Schumann (1810-1856) 1st important Lieder composer after Schubert; inspired by Niccolo Paganini to become a piano virtuoso; injured his hand-turned to composition & criticism; relationship w/ Clara-legal battle; suffered from hallucinations;
example of a piece by Robert Schumann "Im Wunderschonen Monat Mai"
characteristics of Schumann's Lieder piano should capture a poem's essence, piano & voice are equal partners (long piano preludes, interludes, & postludes), focus on love, & single figuration convey an emotion or idea
"Im Wunderschoenen Monat Mai" from Dichterliebe Lieder; poem by Heinrich Heine; poems arranged to suggest the course of a relationship; opening harmonic ambiguity-tentative feelings; longing & desire-suspensions & arpeggios; lack of harmonic resolution-unrequited love; piano is an equal partner
how is "Im Wunderschoenen Monat Mai" from Dichterliebe distinguishable slow piano; German; sung by a male; piano arpeggios
date "Im Wunderschoenen Monat Mai" from Dichterliebe was written 1840
composer of "Im Wunderschoenen Monat Mai" from Dichterliebe Robert Schumann
"Im Wald" from Gartenlieder Op. 3: No. 6 part song; Gartenlieder-"garden songs"; Im Wald-"in the woods"; present tense, outdoors, communion w/ nature; poetry by Emanuel Geibel; folksong-like @ times; diatonic melody; strophic; colorful harmonies, surprising modulations, & imitation; ABA'
"Im Wald" from Gartenlieder Op. 3: No. 6 is distinguishable 4 part harmony song
date "Im Wald" from Gartenlieder Op. 3: No. 6 was written 1846
who wrote "Im Wald" from Gartenlieder Op. 3: No. 6 Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel
song cycle art songs grouped into collections; single poet or common theme; performed in order; tells a story
ex. of a song cycle Dichterliebe by Robert Schumann
absolute music music with no programmatic or descriptive aspects; music for the sake of music
example of absolute music String Quartet in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 131
String Quartet in C-Sharp Minor Beethoven's greatest quartet; appeals to connoisseurs; 7 movements w/o breaks; slow tempo & fugal form-unusual for a 1st mvmt; emotional; unusual harmonies; explores a wide range of keys
date String Quartet in C-Sharp Minor was written 1826
composer of String Quartet in C-Sharp Minor Ludwig van Beethoven
distinguishable features of String Quartet in C-Sharp Minor slow; strings only; lyrical
Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel 4 yrs older than Felix but very close; played the piano @ family concerts; directed a choral society; early works published under Felix's name; about 400 works (most never published); manuscripts located in American & European libraries
Example of a piece by Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel Gartenlieder, Op. 3: No. 6 Im Wald
Lieder most prestigious repertoire of art songs; fusion of music & poetry; expression of individual feelings; descriptive musical imagery; elements of folk style; Schumann's Lieder: music should capture a poem's esscence, & piano & voice are =
example of Lieder Gretchen am Spinnrade
"Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" from Symphonie Fantastique program music; fantastic symphony: An episode in the Life of an artist in 5 parts; inspired by Berlioz's obsession w/ Harriet smith; large instrumentation; "fixed idea"; round dance & dires irae together
how is "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" from Symphonie Fantastique distinguishable not tuneful; spooky
who wrote "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" from Symphonie Fantastique Hector Berlioz
date "Dream of a Witches' Sabbath" from Symphonie Fantastique was written 1830
Felix Mendelssohn musical prodigy-played violin,piano, organ, & 1 of the most important conductors in Europe; founded Leipzig Conservatory; conductor of Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra; Fanny=sister & best friend; conservative harmonies & classical forms
where did Felix Mendelssohn found major musical festivals founded major musical festivals in Germany & England
example of a piece by Felix Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E Minor
Hector Berlioz self-taught; won Prix de Rome-met Felix M. who thought B. was 2 avant-garde; spent last yrs in misery; very large instrumentation, not so memorable melodies; primative-sounding harmonies @ times, & masterful orchestration
example of a piece by Hector Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique, Op. 14
art song voice & piano; strophic form; through-composed miniature drama; German Lied
character pieces suggests a mood, personality, or scene, usually indicated in the title; usually for piano
example of a character piece Sonata Pathetique, Op. 13
Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 ("Pathetique") "sonata w/ pathos" or "impassioned sonata" (feelings of pity, compassion, suffering, or tragedy); in Cmin (associated w/ a stormy, passionate character);
about the movements of Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 ("Pathetique") 3 movements: chromatic mediant & alberti bass (influence by Mozart);1st period; ominous&forboding; lots of accidentals;not very tuneful; lots of tempo markings (ex. grave, allegro di molto e con brio);wider intervals & breaks a lot more rules than Mozart
date Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 ("Pathetique") was written 1799
who wrote Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 ("Pathetique") Ludwig van Beethoven
nationalism common people as the embodiment of the nation; especially during Romantic era
example of nationalism Violin Concerto in E Minor
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe German writer; wrote poems, stage works, & books; his works were set to music by people including Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, & Wagner
ex. of a piece by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe the poem Faust
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